Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of nervous disorders | Chikitsita Sthana
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of inflamed ulcers based on the book Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna | 1911 | 123,229 words. The article was adopted from the website: https://www.wisdomlib.org/, a detailed explanation is available on the website. The patient having been made to vomit in the event of the deranged Vayu being incarcerated (lodged) in the…
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Empowered Women – The Vedic Path by Nandita Das, Received : 20.08.17; Peer Reviewed : 14.09.17; Accepted : 26.09.17. The empowerment of women is a very relevant question of our time which has its own share of multiple ramifications and controversies. Though the term empowerment is a fairly modern term, it has a number of very strong precedents in oriental traditionalism. The term itself is a descendant of the word ‘Power’ which in the Indian context is synonymous with the word ‘Shakti’. In the philosophy of Hinduism, Shakti ( in Sanskrit the word shak denotes “to be able”), is also spelled as ‘Sakthi’, which means “power” or “empowerment” is also the primordial cosmic energy and it also represents the forces of dynamism that are thought to be moving through the entire universe and its parallel corollaries. Shakti is the conceptualisation and the personification of the divine creative power that resides in femininity, and is referred to as ‘The Great Divine Mother’ in Hindu scriptures. As the mother of the universe she is known as the “AdiParashakti” or “Adishakti”. Put on the earthly and everyday plane, the concept of Shakti most actively manifests through the female embodiment of ideas and in the creativity/fertility of the everyday woman, though it also manifests its presence in males in its potential form which is paradoxically “unmanifest”, as the ancient wisdom would have it. “YatraNariAstuPujyante, RamanteTatraDevataa” “The Gods reside in places where woman is worshiped” – Manu Smriti The ancient Indian society had always placed women in a very significant position. Ancient scriptures suggest the fact that they were superior to men in a number of aspects. There are numerous literary evidences that suggest that woman had obtained powers which could have destroyed great kingdoms and mighty rulers. The sagacious Veda Vyasa (An ancient vedic seer / rishi) in Mahabharata has written how the Kaurava kingdom fell because of their humiliation of Draupadi, the beloved wife of Pandavas. Ramyana-Valmiki depicts the dejected state of Ravana for abducting Sita with brute force. The worship of Goddesses in the ancient period was initiated to inspire the public and the populace to respect women unequivocally. In the Vedic society women were active participants in numerous religious ceremonies and assemblies. There is no evidence that suggest the isolation of women in Vedic period in domestic or social spheres , but their dependence on their male relations throughout their lives was steeped with affection and mutual respect. There were eminent women like Maitreyee, Gargi, Lopamudra, Ghosha, and Indrani who were learned and erudite souls and they have put forth their thoughts and learning in the Upanishads. Women in the Vedic era had the opportunity to choose their husband through a type of marriage called the Swayamvara. The laws of this type of marriage stated that the eligible grooms should assemble at the bride’s place and the bride will select her man through tests of merit. Many such examples abound in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. This tradition continued even in the later period in a number of royal families. Swayamvara is the one of the most scientific rituals ever devised for a woman which could give her control over one of the major decisions of her life. The lower status of women in the Vedic Period is just one of the uneducated myths about ancient India. A number of statements given below show the proof of a totally different mindset and culture: “O bride! May the knowledge of the Vedas be in front of you and behind you, inS your center and in your ends. May you conduct your life after attaining the knowledge of the Vedas. May you be benevolent, the harbinger of good fortune and health and live in great dignity and indeed be illumined in your husband’s home.” – Atharva Veda 14-1-64. Women are worthy of worship. They are the fate of the household, the lamp of enlightenment for all in the household. They bring solace to the family and are an integral part of Dharmic life. Even heaven was under the control of women. The Gods reside in those households where women are worshipped and in households where women are slighted all efforts at improvement go in vain.” – Manusmriti 3-56 “The wife should do Agnihotra (yagna), Sandhyavandanam and all other daily religious rituals. If, for some reason, her husband is not present, the woman alone has full rights to do yagna.” – Rigveda Samhita, part 1, sukta 79, sloka 872. In ancient vedic times,women were classified as “Brahmavadini” and “Sadyovadhu”. Brahmavadini was a woman who studied the Vedas after the ritual of Yajnopavitamsanskara (sacred thread ceremony) and got married later or stayed a bachelor in further pursuit of the vedic knowledge. Sadyovadhu was a woman who got married immediately after her sacred thread ceremony. This has been clearly mentioned in the texts like Madhva Samhite on Parashara Smriti, and in the Harita Dharma Sutra, etc. There are some scholars who claim that Brahmavadini is just the term for the wife or a daughter of a male Rishi. But the texts define them as something totally different, and the very word Brahmavadini does not imply anything of that sort.The word actually implies a profound knowledge of the vedas and other sacred texts. Madhava Samhite on Parashara Smriti is of the opinion that : yopanayanamkrutwapashcadvivahamkarotisabrahmavadini| tathaivayaprathamataupanayanamkrutwasadyaevavivahamvidhayatatovedamadhitesasadyovadhuh… which translates into: “She who studies vedas after upanayana and then gets married is brahmavadini, she who gets married immediately after upanayana and then studies vedas is sadyovadhu”. The list given below is a numerical statement of the Female vedic scholars who empowered themselves in an erudite way: Author’s Conclusion: The empowerment of women in the vedic ages was definitely a matter of reality, not of myth. As a parallel conclusion we can certainly draw the inference that the empowering ways of these ancient Female Scholars are relevant even today.
Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained. King Prithu: One of the descendants of Dhruva was a tyrant named Vena. He would not listen to advice from his ministers and continued with his reign of terror. The Rishis then invoked the God of death and Vena died. After the death of Vena, the land had no king to rule. Eventually with the help of penance of the Rishis a boy and a girl was born. They named the boy as Prithu. The girl was named Archis. From the lakshanas, the Rishis knew that he was born from an amsha (part of) of Lord Narayana. Archis was Sri Maha Lakshmi. When he was old enough, the boy was crowned as king. After he was crowned as king, the Rishis called him Prithu, the great protector of the world. Prithu noticed that his subjects were thin and emaciated. He concluded that Earth was not yielding enough. So he confronted Mother Earth and decided to punish her. Mother earth got frightened and explained that as time passed sinful acts were being committed everywhere. In a fit of anger she decided that the people were not fit enough to enjoy the wealth provided to them. However, she promised that she will now agree to yield enough food for all people. Everyone then got what he wanted. King Prithu was very pleased with the earth and her bounty, that he made her his beloved daughter. Since then mother Earth came to called as Prithvi. He was the first king that ever won the hearts of the people. From his time kings have been called “Rajas”. “Ranj” means charm, “Ranjayati iti Raja”. Prithu was the first Raja – “Adiraja”. King Prithu performed one hundred Ashvamedhas. King Prithu’s grandson was Havirdhana who married Havirdhani. They had six children and the eldest was Barhishat. He married Shatadruti, daughter of the lord of the seas. Ten sons were born to this couple and they were famed as Prachetas. King Barhishat believed in the performance of yagnays and he performed many. Sage Narada took interest in him and initiated the Brahma Vidya advising him that it was the way for salvation. King Barhishat followed his advice. Prachetas, the ten sons of King Barhishat, were great devotees of Lord Narayana. Lord Mahadeva was pleased with them and decided to help them. He taught them Rudra Gita and asked them to repeat it with a steady mind in order to gain the favour of Lord Narayana. They did that. The Lord Narayana was pleased with their devotion and asked them to marry Marisha, daughter of an Apsara. He also told the brothers that she will bear them a son whose fame will spread all over the world. All ten of them married Marisha. A son was born to them and he was Daksha. It was the same Daksha Prajapati who insulted Lord Mahadeva. He was born as a human being for the sin he committed. Prachetas crowned Daksha as the king and left for the forest. However, he too left for the forest to perform Tapas. In the previous article, it was mentioned that Svayambhu Manu had two sons – Priyavrata and Uttanapada. We learnt earlier that Uttanapada’s son was the famed Dhruva. Priyavrata was the eldest son of the Manu. However, he had no desire to rule the kingdom and left for the forest to perform Tapas. Uttanapada and later Dhruva ruled the land. However, when Daksha, their descendant, left for the forest, the land was without a ruler. Lord Brahma went to Priyavrata and persuaded him to take up the reins of ruling the kingdom. Priyavrata married Barhishmati, daughter of Vishvakarma. Ten sons and a daughter were born to them. Agnitra was the eldest son. Three of his brothers left to the forest to perform Tapas. Agnitra and his six other brothers ruled the seven islands. The daughter Ojasvati was married to Shukra and their daughter was Devayani. People were happy during his rule. Priyavrata was interested in tracing the path of the Sun. He equipped himself with a chariot fast enough to travel with the Sun. He travelled with the Sun around the Earth seven times. The moats formed by the quick progress of his chariot became the seven great seas. They were named:- Lavan Ikshu Sura Sarpi Dadhi Kshira and Madhu. The earth divided into seven islands. They were named:- Jambu Plaksha Shalmali Kusha Krauncha Shaka and Pushkara King Bharata:- Agnitra’s son was Nabhi and he had no children. He performed a great sacrifice where he worshipped Lord Narayana. The Lord was pleased with Nabhi and promised that he will be born as a son to Nabhi. The child was named Rishabha. Rishabha was crowned as the king after Nabhi. Rishabha married Jayanti the daughter of Indra. They had hundred sons; the eldest of them was Bharata. Bharata was a great king and the land was called Bharatavarsha after him. After a long number of years, Bharata decided to retire to the forest. He distributed his kingdom among his sons he went away to the ashrama of sage Pulaha near Haridwar. He worshipped Lord Narayana with great devotion. His heart was filled with peace born out of renunciation and detachment. One day he rescued a new-born deer when her mother died. He brought up the deer with great care and was greatly attached to it. His meditation and prayers were all things of the past. And when he died Bharata’s mind was on the deer. Since his thoughts were on […]
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1: Jaati tryvidhyam Yugabhedaad Vimaanaanaam | “Three types according to changing Yugas.” Bodhaananda Vritti: The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types. In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square, fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practice mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them; That is: Animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; Mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; Garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; Laghimaa is becoming weightless; Praaptih is securing any desired thing; Praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; Eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and Vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant. The age of Krita yuga = 1.728.000 years, Threthaa yuga–1.296.000 years, Dwaapara yuga–864.000 years and Kaliyuga–432.000 years. Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas. Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. In Tretaa Yuga: Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men’s minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer. Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind. Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshiping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories. The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion. Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favoring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, “Till now you have been known as “Munis” or ascetics. Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as “Rishis” or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practicing celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favor, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises.” Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere. It is said in Vimaana Chandrika, “I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the 3 yugas as of 3 different types.” Vyomayaana Tantra” also says: “By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type.” Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers. In “Yantra Kalpa” also: “Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka.” The same is expressed in “Kheta yaana pradeepika,” and also “Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa.” Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2: “Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena” | “Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 Varieties.” Bodhaananda Vritti: In the previous Sutra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas. […]
Metaphysics is branch of philosophy that concerns with ultimate reality sustaining the apparent world of flux in which life and matter have become cosharers in the space-time continum. Mind is consciousness of life and matter, availing both in the terrestrial process. The space-time continum rolls on these two actualities of life and matter. HENRY BERGSON, in his “Creative Evolution”, accepts this dualism of life and matter. In BERGSON’s philosophy, the world “is divided into two disparate portions, on the one hand life; on the other hand, that inert something which the intellect views as matter. The whole universe is the clash and conflict of two opposite motions; life which climbs upward, and matter, which falls downward. Life is one great force, one vast vital impulse, given once for all from the beginning of the world, meeting the resistance of matter, straggling to break a way through matter, learning gradually to use matter by means of organization; divided by the obstacles, it encounters into diverging currents, like the wind at a street comer; partly subdued by matter through the very adaptations which matter forces upon it; retaining always its capacity for free activity, straggling always to find new outlets, seeking always for grater liberty of movement a mid the opposing walls of matter. The question is two-fold one : one, the process how and second, the principle why life should seek to break through the matter. The chemical evolution has taken water to be the primal matter which the life, at its inception, has broken through. The chemical evolution conceives life as a singular, continuous, uniform phenomenon, though compounds of creation have shared it on gradually ascending orders, having made provision for due completion among the preceding orders. The difference in biological or psychological levels among classes of created beings, is an upgrading of life on planes one higher than the other. Each power order is an incentive for onward progression which marks that there has been continuous stream of life in an uprising course. The natural selection or the survival of the fittest bespeaks of the progression of the simple compounds of the elements of nature into the creation of organic compounds. The data collected by the chemical evolution theory is a recorder of the strides taken by life for its emancipation from the initial appetitive stage for an elevation to the meditative stage. The origin of life, in the chemical evolution theory, has been traced to the alchemy of lighter compounds, diffused freely in nature, in the substantive forms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, combining with each other and resulting into the formation of the basal compounds of water, ammonia and methane. The trans-combination of these simple compounds went into the formation of more sophisticated compounds like glucose, glycerine and the fatty acids, and the process continued until the creation of virus considered to be the first representative of embodied life. Composed only- of nuclic acid, the virus reacted upon another compound of protein and a combination of the two brought about the origin of the nucleo-protein endowed with the faculty of reproduction. The first step towards evolution of animate existence was the origin of appetitive life, possessing nothing more than the mere appetite of reproduction. The fermentation of life came to soon discover that this very crude appetence could not be sustained without being energized from another material source. The primal life assessed in the chrysalis of a single cell, therefore, aspired to come into contact with a source of energy. The Sun has been the single source of energy in the universe. The cellular life came in communion with the Sun. The Sun is the nucleus of the universe, and since a communion could be possible only from nucleus to nucleus, the cellular life, so far not endowed with a nucleus, had to emerge one for generation into it of a substance known as the chlorophyll, meant as an absorbent of solar energy by use of which the appetitive life evolves into the vegetative life. The Sun as a centre of the universe, became also the sustainer of life. The vedic term “Vishnu” understood as the sustainer of all life on earth, is a synonym of the solar energy. This proves the sustenance of life as a singular, continuous, uniform phenomenon making it possible for the components of creation to share life on unlike but gradually ascending orders. In the ascending order of creation, the vegetative life evolved into the animal or the instinctive life which culminated finally into the meditative life, fee life of fee homo-sapien. The advent of the horao-sapien is the apex evaluation of life. It is the homosapien which values life most, and the homo-sapien differs from the lower order only in terms of his power of meditation. The emergence of the meditative life is end of alchemy of evolution. Having created in life the requisite consciousness for higher phases of human existence, the biological evolution has culminated its purpose, leaving the species as they are, without resurrection of those which have become extinct in the struggle for existence and without elevation of all total lower species into homo-sapiens. Such arrival of the meditative life, the biological evolution has come to a stand-still and tire evolutionary process has thereafter rested with reproduction of life on the biological level. Evolution advances, thenceforth, in the meditative life of the homo-sapien. Meditation is an order of thought towards progression. The evolution of meditative life aspires for attainment of values to human life. The meditative evolution is a process of regeneration of values. The “upanishad” has summarized this evolutionary process of life in a terse statement that earth is the sap or essence of the elemental forces of nature, that water is the sap of earth; that the sap of human is vegetation; that sap of vegetation is human life; that sap of human life is mediation, which is “vak” or the reflective sense of speech; that the sap of reflective speech is “rik” or […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Ayurvedic References in Yajurveda by Sri K . Viswanatha Sharma , Lecturer, Sanskrit University , Kanchi. VEDAS are reposters of ultimate knowledge. These repositories of ultimate knowledge comprise innumerable branches. Knowledge of Medical cures is one of such innumerable branches. Curatory medical knowledge could be found sparsely spread over in Vedas too that in indurate and inboard your instances only Atharva Veda is exception and totally devoted medicine. Those intersperced indicative bits were subsequently elaborated by our great sages and developed as a specific branches of knowledge. This elaborated and with develobed branch of knowledge is “Ayurveda” as per the origin of Historians. Presently, we shall undertake to make an illustrative study of the curative methods, indicated in the Yajurveda. For the purpose of this study, the Samhita parts of Taittiriya Sakha parts of Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Ekagni Kanda from out of Yajurveda are taken into consideration. Authentive texts which are not related to Medical sciences are relied upon this study. The referral texts are listed herewith: Vidyaranya Veda Bhashya of Sayanacharya, Veda Bhashya of Bhatta Bhaskara, Amara Simha’s namalinganusasanam commentaries there on vyakhya sudha; amara kosa sodhanika; and Sabda kalpa Drumam; Taranadha bhattacharya’s Vachaspatyam, Vyakarana Sutra’s of Panini, Dhatu Patham of Panini, Dhatu Ratna Karam etc., All these texts are not related to Medical Sciences. If the creative methods embedded in the Vedas could be detected by relying upon the literature unrelated to medicine. It would be more possible to unearth many more issues embedded in Vedas by applying medical scientific principles as such. In order to prove this, the texts not related to medical sciences are referred to relayed upon in the course of this study. Firstly we shall examine meaning of the word Vaidya (Doctor) as desirable in Vedas. Bhishak is the other work used for Vaidya. This synonym is categorized in “Amkarakosa”, “Bishak Vaidye Chikitsake” (1) The definition of the word Bhishak is available in IVth Kanda of Krishna Yajurveda. yadosha dayah sangachchante – rajanassamita viva viprassa uchyate bhishak rakshoha miva chaatanah !! The substance of this mantra is: In the battle field, King seek the cooperation of the other kings to fight with the enemy. Such of Kings indulged in Warfare exhibit mutual friendship and brotherhood. Likewise the wise-man who commands the obedience of Medicines , just as a king commands collective obedience of his warrior in the battle field is called Bhishak. Rakshoha, Ameeva chaatanah drawing special attents to the four words used in the mantra viz., Vipra Bishak Rakshoha Ameeva chaatanah  Vibra – “vipati iti vipra” this explanation is found in the Ksheera Swameeyam and Vyakhya Sudha , and the commentarism on Amarakosa . By this explanation, the word attains the meaning “ruler”. But, in his Vidyaranya Bhashyam, Sayana has given another meaning for the word; “Vipraathi ithi Viprah” “ Praathi “ means to fill , to replenish . If anybody communicates somethings or anything inconclusively and incoherently, a wise man can understand and replenish the rest of the subject, in full form, by himself. Hence, the word Vipra is nearer to the meaning of the word wise-man Medhavi. Nearer to this sense, the usage of the word Vipra is found in some Chatu Slokas, to it. “Vidya yaa yaathi viprathvam” Here, “Vipra” is used in the sense learned man. Thus deducting the meaning of the word Vipra as wise – man, seems correct.  Bhishak – The meaning of this word is “Conqurer of diseases”, by the explanation “Bhikshapathi iti Bhishak” Bhishak vie chikitsa ke” is seen in vyakhya sudha”. As per Paninicharya Dhatupatham Bheshaja Ruk Jaye; The meaning of this root word is Bheshaji is conquering diseases.  Rakshohaa – By virtue of its interpretation Rakhsansi Ham thi iti Rakshoha”, of the word means, “the destroyer of Rakshasas”. Nit wjp are the Ralsjasas? To obtain answer to this question, the interpretation of the word Rakshah can be looked up. The interpretation of this word is available in Ksheera swameeyam and Vyakhya Sudha “ Rakshanthi asmat iti Rakshah”. Hence, the meaning