Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of nervous disorders | Chikitsita Sthana
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of inflamed ulcers based on the book Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna | 1911 | 123,229 words. The article was adopted from the website: https://www.wisdomlib.org/, a detailed explanation is available on the website. The patient having been made to vomit in the event of the deranged Vayu being incarcerated (lodged) in the…
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 106 (Buddha’s Date)) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. The date of Sankaracharya has been discussed in great detail by a very large number of scholars. For some details the works of Kota Venkatachelam and the essay of Ramachandran may be consulted. For the purposes of the present essay, the planetary positions at the time of birth of Adi Sankara and given in the article by Ramachandran is sufficient. The horoscope is given by Citsukhacarya, a boyhood friend of Sankara, in his work Brhadvijaya. According to it Sankara was born in the year Nandana of Kaliyuga 2593 (509 BCE) in the month of visakha, suklapaksa pancami tithi, punarvasu naksatra, karkataka lagna, in the abhijinmuhurta. The Figure A shows a star map for April 5, 509 BCE and it is easily seen that tithi, lagna, naksatra and the positions of the planets are exactly as described in the horoscope. This verifies that the planetary configuration as given for that date is correct. However, caution must be exercised in deriving the dates based on horoscopic data alone.
Year 1985 – The AI Magazine Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence by Rick Brigs | RIACS, NASA Ames Research Centeu, Moffet Field, California 94305. In the past twenty years, much time, effort, and money has been expended on designing an unambiguous representation of natural languages to make them accessible to computer processing These efforts have centered around creating schemata designed to parallel logical relations with relations expressed by the syntax and semantics of natural languages, which are clearly cumbersome and ambiguous in their function as vehicles for the transmission of logical data. Understandably, there is a widespread belief that natural languages arc unsuitable for the transmission of many ideas that artificial languages can render with great precision and mathematical rigor. But this dichotomy, which has served as a premise underlying much work in the areas of linguistics and artificial intelligence, is a false one There is at least one language, Sanskrit, which for the duration of almost more than 5000+ years was a living spoken language with a considerable literature of its own Besides works of literary value, there was a long philosophical and grammatical tradition that has continued to exist with undiminished vigor until the present century. Among the accomplishments of the grammarians can be reckoned a method for paraphrasing Sanskrit in a manner that is identical not only in essence but in form with current work in Artificial Intelligence This article demonstrates that a natural language can serve as an artificial language also, and that much work in AI has been reinventing a wheel millenia old First, a typical Knowledge Representation Scheme (using Semantic Nets) will be laid out, followed by an outline of the method used by the ancient Indian Grammarians to analyze sentences unambiguously. Finally, the clear parallelism between the two will be demonstrated, and the theoretical implications of this equivalence will be given. For the sake of comparison, a brief overview of semantic nets will be given, and examples will be included that will be compared to the Indian approach. After early attempts at machine translation (which were based to a large extent on simple dictionary look-up) failed in their effort to teach a computer to understand natural language, work in AI turned to Knowledge Representation. Since translation is not simply a map from lexical item to lexical item, and since ambiguity is inherent in a large number of utterances, some means is required to encode what the actual meaning of a sentence is. Clearly, there must be a representation of meaning independent of words used. Another problem is the interference of syntax. In some sentences (for example active/passive) syntax is, for all intents and purposes, independent of meaning. Here one would like to eliminate considerations of syntax. In other sentences the syntax contributes to the meaning and here one wishes to extract it. Author considers a “prototypical” semantic net system similar to that of Lindsay, Norman, and Rumelhart in the hopes that it is fairly representative of basic semantic net theory. Taking a simple example first, one would represent “John gave the ball to Mary” as in Figure 1. Here five nodes connected by four labeled arcs capture the entire meaning of the sentence. This information can be stored as a series of “triples”: give, agent, John give, object, ball give, recipient, Mary give, time, past. Note that grammatical information has been transformed into an arc and a node (past tense). A more complicated example will illustrate embedded sentences and changes of state: “John told Mary that the train moved out of the station at 3 o’clock.” As shown in Figure 2, there was a change in state in which the train moved to some unspecified location from the station. It went to the former at 3:00 and from the latter at 3:O0. Now one can routinely convert the net to triples as before. The verb is given central significance in this scheme and is considered the focus and distinguishing aspect of the sentence. However, there are other sentence types which differ fundamentally from the above examples. Figure 3 illustrates a sentence that is one of “state” rather than of “event .” Other nets could represent statements of time, location or more complicated structures. A verb, say, “give,” has been taken as primitive, but what is the meaning of “give” itself? Is it only definable in terms of the structure it generates? Clearly two verbs can generate the same structure. One can take a set-theoretic approach and a particular give as an element of “giving events” itself a subset of ALL-EVENTS. An example of this approach is given in Figure 4 (“John, a programmer living at Maple St., gives a book to Mary, who is a lawyer”). If one were to “read” this semantic net, one would have a very long text of awkward English: “There is a John” who is an element of the “Persons” set and who is the person who lives at ADR1, where ADR1 is a subset of ADDRESS-EVENTS, itself a subset of ‘ALL EVENTS’, and has location ‘37 Maple St.‘, an element of Addresses; and who is a “worker” of ‘occupation 1’. . .etc.” The degree to which a semantic net (or any unambiguous, nonsyntactic representation) is cumbersome and odd-sounding in a natural language is the degree to which that language is “natural” and deviates from the precise or “artificial.” As we shall see, there was a language spoken among an ancient scientific community that has a deviation of zero. The hierarchical structure of the above net and the explicit descriptions of set-relations are essential to really capture the meaning of the sentence and to facilitate inference. It is believed by most in the AI and general linguistic community that natural languages do not make such seemingly trivial hierarchies explicit. Below is a description of a natural language, Shastric Sanskrit, where for the past millenia successful attempts have been made to encode such information. Shastric Sanskrit The sentence: (1) “Caitra goes […]
The desire to know is the desire to experience, to realize, to become, or to create, as explained in the first part of “Aitareya Upanishad”. In Bible, the first episode of Adam in tasting the forbidden fruit is an offence attributable to the outburst of the creative force. The divine command was conservation of force, which was condition of being. Ingrained into the fancy for the forbidden, lies the assumed awareness of an ideal, and the impairment of the ideal is actual impulse of the dynamicity concentrated in reality. The awareness of the ideal and the aberration for the breach of it, are the two opposites only of a single structural whole, which is real. The real polarizes itself into the ideal and the actual is quaking motion of it. The actual is a strivance for reversal of the ideal of breach thereof. The breach sustains the actual but sanctifies the ideal. If is the possibility of the breach that sustains the ideal and keeps the actual sustainable. The process of breach implicates both the ideal and the actual. There is a breach because of the ideal. The force or the “shakti” breaks its bounds, and it is through the breach that the force becomes intelligible. The breach is basically a device for vindication of the ideal. The breach is real, because it synthesizes, in a dialectical sense, both the ideal and the actual. Each phase of becoming is revelation of the creative force of being and the scheme of becoming synthesizes the ideal and the actual and points the way in which the force is put to test or becomes tested. The force of “shakti” is inherent limitation of the indefinite. It is with accessories of limitations that the infinite reveals itself and becomes finite. In its revelation alone the infinite is apprehended. The limitations are aids to revelation. The limitation is standardized modality of the finite, since the force persists in the revelation of the infinite through finite means. It is in this revelation that the infinite chooses to put its vitality to test. The entire process is an experiment and the creative force is the tested reality, nay the continual testing of hat which is ultimately real. The genesis in the bible, is testimony of the elan of creative energy. It is elan vital in Bergson’s terminology. The fall of Adam is rhetoric revolt against dormancy of the creative force. The divine command depicts the poised rectitude of force. The divine is slumbering state of force which transcends the creative process. The fall of Adam furnishes the restive passion for creation. The fruit which is forbidden is humanity prior to procreation. The deep slumbering pose of the infinite is averse to creation. The divine command is the first awareness instilled in the being as readiness for creation. The divine command was Adam’s anthropomorphy of the infinite withholding its creative power. It was a stage of forbearance, a stage where procreation had to be forsaken. It was a pint of transition in the creative force for its transformation into tire procreative power. The fall of Adam is rhapsodic imagery of a discourse between the creator and the creature. The imbroglio of force was premeditated. The creator was aware of the forbidden, and the creature was made aware of that which was forbidden. The difference is not without meaning. The awareness of God was creative energy, that of Adam was procreative power. God is name for creative agency in nature. Adam is creature or product of nature. The character of God or Adam may be legends, and the episode may be phantasy, but the moral is correct to bear evidence that the reality in its mystery of creation carries the burden of some primaeval force. The procreative pleasure of the creature is accountable to a later formality of the operation of this force. It is this force which throughout persists prior to, or even after, the fleeting flux of the world. It is “Lebnitz” knew this by the name of “conatus” the same what Hindus know by the name of “shakti”. The desire to know as well as the knowledge derived, both refer to this force. The Knowledge Gained The desire to know, in the creature, as instanced by the character of Adam starts from the first-hand information of the forbidden, and the forbidden, in relation to the desire to know, is mere admission of the unknown. The unknown is one which eludes perception. Knowledge is the facultative art of breaking through the barriers of perception and thereby apprehending the casual nucleus of that which is perceived. Infonnation leads to intelligence, intelligence to understanding, understanding leads to learning, learning to wisdom and wisdom to knowledge; and all this, from first to the last, is a gap filed by a process of transfusion of precepts into concepts. The percept of the tree can never become knowledge of the tree without the corresponding concept of seed. The seed is cause of the tree but in knowing the seed as cause of the tree, the knower knows of the latent force in which the tree potentially exists; and what is true of the origin of tree is true of the origin of the entire universe ‘which at one stage lay dormant in a reservoir of force omnipotent. The conatus of Leibnitz, the elan vital of Bergson, the shakti of the Hindus, the forbidden fruit of the genesis, the prakrati of the samkhya, or the Maya of Vedanta, stand all as synonyms of this potential force. Knowledge, leaping back from one posterior phenomenon of force to its prior, that is, from one perceptual event to its antecedent casual potentiality, stabilizes itself in the comprehension of the first cause, which implicates in itself the vision of the law. d Vision of Law the knowledge of this potential force is knowledge of the first cause. Law is but the ingrained tendency of this force. The law of the tree is ingrained in the force […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Vedic Epistemology | The Vedic Paradigm for the development of knowledge Para Vidya (Sciences of the material world) and aPara Vidya (Transcendental Sciences) Adhi Daivika represent Cosmic phenomena such as Meteorites, sun spots which cause a disruption in the planet; Adhi Bhautika encompass Terrestrial phenomena such as fire floods, landslides and Adhyatmika, are purely subjective traits such as inertia, lack of faith, insincerity and such , arise from our own negativities. The following article will present on Epistemology of the Dharmik tradition (Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature and validity of knowledge). Darshana: Vision, philosophical doctrine Pramana: Right Knowledge. There are several approaches to accumulating and fine tuning knowledge Pratyaksha: Direct perception, for example ocular proof Anumaana, अनुमान , inference Upamaana: Use of analogy,simile Shabdabodha ( शब्दबोध ): Cognition caused by an utterance based on Authoritative or scriptural testimony e,g, The Bhagavad Gita. Who determines whether a particular scripture is authoritative. Ultimately it is the individual. Arthapaati: (Postulate) Upapatti: Necessity of proof or demonstration Viparyaya: (Wrong knowledge or lack of discrimination) Vikalpa: (Fancy or Verbal delusion) Nidra: (sleep) Smriti: (Memory) The Shad-Dharshanas: The Shad-Dharshanas are six great works (Philosophical systems) that shed light on Indian Ethos, the way the Indic looks at the world, which many mistakenly consider to be based on blind belief. Explaining the Vedas explicitly, they share with the world the wisdom contained therein. The six texts are based on: The Veda, Non-belief and Inner Vision They explain incidents and events that pertain to all the three times of past, present and future. They have taught man how to do away with suffering, restlessness etc., and lead a good life by removing the dirt in him. They explicitly state that the Vedas, the Vedanta and the knower of Vedas are all one and the same. They explain the nature of the mind which is responsible for all Intelligence, intellect and discrimination. These six great Dharshanas (texts) are: Nyaaya, Vaisheshika, Saankhya, Yoga, Puurva-Mimaamsa and Utthara Mimaamsa. Valid knowledge and its means Valid knowledge (prama) is defined as that knowledge which has for its object something that is not already known and is uncontradicted (anadhigata-abaadhita arthavishayaka-jnaanam). The qualification ‘something that is not already known’ is meant to exclude recollection. The word ‘uncontradicted’ excludes illusion or error, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake. The Mimamsakas hold that time is also cognised through the organs of sense. Thus, when an object is seen, the cognition is connected with the moment when it is seen. As a result, when an object is seen continuously for several moments, the cognition at each moment is considered to be different from the cognition of the same object at the previous or next moment. In this view, the cognition at each moment is a new cognition and so the qualification ‘something that is not already known’ applies and the definition is applicable. According to Vedanta, however, a continuous cognition for several moments is one single cognition. The knowledge of a pot, for example, is Consciousness reflected in the mental modification (vritti) in the form of the pot and this is just one throughout the time the same pot continues to be seen. In this view also the definition applies. Objection: According to Advaita Vedanta, all objects such as pot are unreal, being ‘mithya’, and so the knowledge of the pot is contradicted and it cannot be valid knowledge. Answer: It is only after the realization of Brahman that the pot is contradicted. In the above definition, ‘uncontradicted’ means ‘not contradicted during the transmigratory state’. The following is adapted from Dattapeetham What is Nirvachana (definition)? For properly understanding a topic, we should be conversant with the correct definitions of the words we useIt was in this context that the question ‘what is Nirvachana?’ had come up. Nir-Vachana means, to elucidate appropriately and precisely. It means ‘to explain with the help of unambiguous terms what has to be explained’. In the present context of understanding Vedanta, we were trying to understand the phenomenon of the manifest world and the Knowledge of the Self. Understanding itself is Jnana (knowledge). Jnana: Jnana is of two types. 1. Yathaartha Jnana and 2. Ayathaartha Jnana. Yathaartha Janna means understanding an object as that of the literal object only. For example, in the example of rope snake, to understand a rope to be a rope is Yathaartha Janna. Wrongly understanding an object (to be something else) is Ayathaartha Janna. This is also called Asatya Jnana (false knowledge). In the analogy of rope and snake, assuming a piece of rope to be a snake is Ayathaartha Janna. Objection: When simple terms such as Satya Jnana and Asatya Jnana are available, why should difficult words (Yathaartha Jnana and Ayathaartha Jnana) be used? Reply: It is true that they are difficult terms. But they possess more clarity. There are two words Yatha + Artha (in the word Yathaartha). ‘To perceive an object as that very object’ is the meaning of these words. That is, to perceive a rope as rope is Yathaartha Jnana. Using the word Yathaartha, rather than Satya conveys this meaning better. Because the term is difficult, the men of wisdom have used another simpler word ‘Pramaa’ in place of Yathaartha. Pramaa means Yathaartha Jnana. Pramaa (True knowledge, accuracy of perception). Pramaa is of two types. 1. Smriti (remembrance) and 2. Anubhava (experience). Smriti is recollection of what has been experienced in the past. Anubhava is perceiving in the present. Anubhava comes from Pramanas (testimonies) such as Pratyaksha (direct perception). When the knowledge thus obtained with the help of Pramanas remains in the Antahkarana (inner instruments) as Samskara (latent impression) and after some time, due to some reason gets recollected, it becomes ‘Smriti). Therefore, it can be said with […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Functions of Dhatus according to Ayurvedic kriya Sharir (Dhatukarmabhyas) | Research Article By Sunil Tulshiramji Mehetre | Corresponding Author: Assistant Professor & HOD, Department of Kriya sharir, S.C.M. Aryangla Vaidyak mahavidyalaya, I.T.I. Road, Gendamal, Satara-415002 (Maharashtra). Supplemental Issue of National Seminar on Empowering and Empanelling Ayurveda System of Medicine Organized by SC Mutha Aryangla Vaidyak Mahavidyalaya, Satara on 26-27 March 2015. Published online in http://ijam. co. in. Ayurveda is an Ancient medical science related to healthiness & unhealthiness of a person. The main aim of ayurveda is to acquire purushartha by means of Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. For this purpose each person should be healthy in terms of body & mind. The definition of healthy person according to ayurveda is to balance Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Agni, Kriya, Prasanna Atma, Indriya, & Mann. These healthiness is defined by comparison to physiological parameters i.e. sharirkriyatmak parameters which are mentioned above. The balance of Dhatus is called as dhatusamya is one of the important parameter of healthy person. According to Ayurveda there are seven dhatus in a person, these are rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja, shukra. These dhatus are defined as per their functions called as karmas. These are important for healthy state of the body. As per ayurvediya kriya sharir “Dosha Dhatu Mala mulam hi shariram” thus dhatu is most important part of body because both dosha & mala are live with dhatu. Hence if we carried out the detail study of functions or karmas of dhatus then we definitely get the fixed parameters which help us to keep the person healthy & to give health to the person who are suffering from disease. Ayurvediya kriya sharir is divided in to Dosha, (functional principal) Dhatu (constitutional principal) & mala (waste products). Equilibrium of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala is essential for healthy person. If thus Equilibrium is preatu karma is important. Sent in person then that person is fit to resume Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha which are the four purushartha of human life. In other words it is clear that equilibrium of both dosha, dhatu, mala, in a person is a state of healthiness and when this equilibrium doesn’t exist then the state is unhealthiness. Ayurvediya kriya sharir mentioned the dosha, dhatu and malas, according to their qualities (guna) and function (karma). The study of “Doshakarmabhyas” is possible by observing the effect of Dosha gunas on our body & mind. Malas are expelled from our bodies, hence the examination of malas is also possible. The remaining dhatus in equilibrium state acquired the body and also nourishes to each other by laws:- kshirdadhi kedarkulya and khalekapot. The dosha & mala are living with dhatus & the diseases also begin from dhatu vaishmya, because khavaigunya. (starting of disease) also occur in dhatu. Thus dhatus also play important role in our body & mind. Hence if we collect all functions of dhatus serially & develop the parameters according to function of dhatus then the concept of dhatus & their functions has been well elaborated, which is helpful for aim of swasthsya-swasthya rakshan & aturasya vikar prashamanach. Author aims:- To study the functions of Dhatus according to Ayurvedic kriya sharir. i.e. (Dhatukarmabhyas.) and its main Objectives or point of study are: To collect all functions of sapta-Dhatus described in Ayurveda To develop parameters in healthy person & to check functions of Dhatus with the help of Ayurvedic literature &modern science. To study functions of Dhatus. Review of literature:- “Karma”:- Ayurvedic definition prayatnadi karma chestitmuchyate / charak su. Ad. 1/49. Panchmahabhutatmak constitution of our body Dosha: vata: vayu+Akash mahabhutadhiky Pitta: Tej mahabhutadhikya Kapha: Apa +pruthvi mahabhutadhikya Dhatu: Ras: Apa mahabhutadhikya Rakta:Tej +Apa mahabhutadhikya Mansa: Parthiv mahabhutadhikya Meda: Apa+ Parthiv mahabhutadhikya Asthi: Parthiv+ vayu mahabhutadhikya Majja: Apa mahabhutadhikya Shukra: Apa mahabhutadhikya Mala: Purish: parthiv mahabhutadhikya Mutra: Apa+Tej mahabhutadhikya Sweda: Apa mahabhutadhikya Description of dhatus according to:- Nirukti Definition Dhatubheda –poshya & poshak No. of Dhatu Place of dhatu in our body (sthan) Dhatu swarupa Dhatu poshana with different theories Dhatvagni Dhatu parinati –kal. Description of each Dhatus according to:- Nam Nirukti Synonyms Place Parinati Swarup & guna (qualities) Sar lakshan Quantity (Praman) Function Types Upadhatu Mala Kshaya lakshana Vruddhi lakshana Collective functions of saptadhatu as per Vagbhatacharya & Susrutacharya:- Ras- prinan, tushti, raktaposhan Rakta- Jeevan, sharir varna, dhatupuran, bal, sukha, asandighdha sparshayan, mansa poshan Mansa: lepan , bal, medapushti. Meda: snehan, swedotpatti, drudhatva, asthipushtikam. Asthi: dharan,majjaposhan. Majja: Asthipuram, preeti, snehan, bala, shukrapusti Shukra: Garbhotpadan, dhairya, chavan, dehabala, preeti, harshan. Materials &methods:- Place of study: Dept. of kriya sharir, Govt. Ayurvedic College Nanded-431601 Period: 2000 to 2003 Inclusion criteria Age group- 20 to 40 Yr. Number of person- 50 Healthy persons which are doing their daily activities easily & not suffering from any disease. Only male persons because semen analysis test is one parameter in shukra dhatu function. Area: Nanded & Parbhani city. By random sampling method. Exclusion criteria: Age group: Below 20 & above 40 yrs. Persons suffering from systemic diseases. Females. Method Darshan sparshan prashne parikshet ch Roginam// Astang hruday Ad 1/12. Darshan prashna sasparshe pariksha trividha smruta// charak chikitsa Ad 25/ 22. All the measurable things concern with function of Dhatus & above method is used for examination. Dhatu function wise description is as follows. Ras Dhatu:- Prinan- Ras Dhatu saryakti lakshne, nadi parikshan, measurement of blood pressure, Examination of Heart as a mula sthan, ECG. TUSHTI – Darshan, sparshan, prashana, pariksha. Raktaposhan – Darshan, sparshan, prashan pariksha. Rakta Dhatu: Jeevan- Hb%, RBC Count, respiratory rate. Sharirvarna: Rakta dhatu sarvyakti lakshane, darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha. Dhatupuram;Nadi pariksha, examination of blood pressure. Bala: Harward step test Sukh: darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha. Asandigha sparshdhyan- use of cotton, pin & til tail. Mansa poshan – Darshan, Sparshan, Prashna Pariksha. Mansa Dhatu:- Lepana-measurements by tape of parts of body described in mansadhatusar lakshane, weight, muscle tone. Bala-By weight lifting. Medapushti- Darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha. Meda Dhatu:- Snehan- meda dhatusar lakshane, measurement of abdomen by tape, body mass index, west hip ratio. […]