Vedic Roots – Origin | Vedic Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Insight 101
Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article would focus on Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature. Three religions are regarded as the oldest having come down to us from prehistoric times. They are Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism. Sanskrit, as defined by Panini, is the classical Sanskrit which…
Definition of Science: Carnap defines Science as – “an ordered body of knowledge.” Skinner, defines Science as – “a search for order, for uniformities for lawful relations amongst events in nature.” In the view of Wartofsky “Science is an activity, a process and continuous inquiry. The procedures, functions and purposes of Scientific inquiry must be kept in view while defining Science. Science is a growing system like an organism.” “Empirical verification and instrumental measurements are the two important characteristics of Scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge, then is basically analytical. It analysis the date of experience into their distinguishable parts or properties or functions and instrumentally measures their qualities. Scientific knowledge, then, is basically quantitative in its nature.” Definition of Sound: Modern Science defines sound as – Sound consists of certain physical events which may take place whether is someone is there to here them or not. Sound is an organized movement of molecules caused by vibrating body in some medium – water, air, rock or whatever. “Of course not” said the philosophers, who were questioning all of nature in the search for a real world. Sound is a sensation, known only to the mind of the listener – a sensary experience which we can relate to our physical and emotional lives. This question still puzzles today – and puzzles them to no purpose. It confuses cause (a physical vibration of some material thing) with an effect (a physiological sensation in an animal brain) and which of the two is sound ? Both Sound originates when a body moves back and forth rapidly enough to send a wave coursing thorough the medium in which it is vibrating. But sound as sensation must be received by the ear and passed on to the brain, where is can be registered as an event taking place in the world about the listener. Over this past 200 years, science has explored both aspect of sounds dual nature. Today we can at last describe with real precision not only the physics of sounds but much of the biology of hearing. Physics explains the origin and the ultimate sound as vibration. Sound according to physics is imprisoned within the limits of the theory of vibrations. “Vibration is defined as the pattern of periodic alternating quantities changes (oscillations) in a medium, induced by the passage of energy through the medium. For example, when a stone drops into the quite waters of the lake, the water is the medium. The splash of the falling stone injects mechanical energy into the water, inducing it to vibrate in waves; this energy travels through the water in the form of ripples, or oscillations, that spread out from the point of impact. These waves are alternating (up and down) changes in quantitative or measurable aspect of the water. The cross-section of the waves and the concentric circles made by them is the pattern. That each wave follows the previous one by the same distance or time interval indicates that the phenomenon is periodic. Each up and down cycle of a wave takes the same amount of time. The term oscillation and vibration are almost synonymous; however, a vibration is usually composed of more than one oscillation.” Is this definition sufficient or accurate in describing the content or native of sound ? Modern physics cannot explain the true nature of sound. Indian metaphysics can only explain the theory of sound, its origin and ultimate limit. Sound is essentially independent of vibration. There is sound which exists without vibration which is the original nature of sound. Sound is the creator but not the creature. According to Indian metaphysics vibration is the effect but not the cause of the sound. Modern physics of sound is inadequacy in the case of its receiver. The biological evolution of the animal ear or the human is the receiver of the sound. These animal or human beings can hear certain frequencies of sound only and beyond or above the frequencies, they cannot hear. Understanding the sound in the stand point of human beings or animals, physics say the lower or the higher frequencies as silent sound. Justice Mukharji in his article: “The Meta-Physics of Sound, said that the vistas beyond the higher limit or below the lower limit are infinite compared to the narrow range of audibility of that ear. To meet that inadequacy the Physics of sound adopted the fiction of silent sound. That fiction means that sound is still caused by vibration, but such sound is not within the normal range of audibility of the ear. The characters of that fiction are ultra sonic, super sonic and infra sonic. While this friction meets the difficult of inaudibility it faces the more insoluble difficult of the medium.” Modern physics has second inadequacy in explaining the medium of sound. It says that the medium of sound is neither a solid or a liquid or a gas. Physics says that sound vanishes when vacuum is created in the medium. “Robert Boyle the British Scientist under took a simple example in 1660 A.D. by suspending a watch with a good alarm from a slender thread in a glass jar. Then he pumped the air out of the jar. We silently expected the time when the alarm should begin the ring and were satisfied that we heard the watch not at all. Wherefore ordering some air to be let in, we did by the help of attention, begin to here the alarm. Boyle had demonstrated that sound requires a medium; some substance through its vibrations can be transmitted.” Here there are vibrations only without sound because there is no medium. The theory of silent sound does not now come to the rescue, says Mukharje: “For it is no longer supersonic, ultra sonic, or infra sonic. It is now legless sound.” What is that then ? Our Indian metaphysics call it static sound, the causal stress. Modern physics has yet failed to discover the static sound. It has discovered the silent sound, a concept […]
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 106 (Buddha’s Date)) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. The date of Sankaracharya has been discussed in great detail by a very large number of scholars. For some details the works of Kota Venkatachelam and the essay of Ramachandran may be consulted. For the purposes of the present essay, the planetary positions at the time of birth of Adi Sankara and given in the article by Ramachandran is sufficient. The horoscope is given by Citsukhacarya, a boyhood friend of Sankara, in his work Brhadvijaya. According to it Sankara was born in the year Nandana of Kaliyuga 2593 (509 BCE) in the month of visakha, suklapaksa pancami tithi, punarvasu naksatra, karkataka lagna, in the abhijinmuhurta. The Figure A shows a star map for April 5, 509 BCE and it is easily seen that tithi, lagna, naksatra and the positions of the planets are exactly as described in the horoscope. This verifies that the planetary configuration as given for that date is correct. However, caution must be exercised in deriving the dates based on horoscopic data alone.
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of inflamed ulcers based on the book Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Chikitsasthana by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna | 1911 | 123,229 words. The article was adopted from the website: https://www.wisdomlib.org/, a detailed explanation is available on the website. Metrical Texts:— Ashmari (urinary calculus, etc) is a dangerous disease and is as fatal as death itself. A case of recent origin (acute) proves amenable to medicines, while an enlarged or chronic one requires surgical operations. The remedial measures, in the order of anointing, etc., should be employed in the first or incipient stage of the disease, whereby the entire defects with their causes (i.e., roots of the disease) would be radically cured. Treatment of Vataja Ashmari:— Clarified butter cooked with a decoction of Pashanabheda, Vasuka, Vashira, Ashmantaka, Shatavari, Shvadamstra, Vrihati, Kantakarika, Kapotavamka, Artagala, Kakubha, Ushira, Kubjaka, Vrikshadani, Bhalluka, Varuna, Shaka-phala, barley, Kulattha, Kola and Kataka fruits and with the Kalka of the drugs constituting the group of Ushakadi, speedily brings about the disintergration of Ashmari (urinary calculi, etc.) due to the action of the deranged Vayu. Milk, Yavagu (gruel), a decoction, soup, or an alkali, properly prepared with the above Vayu-subduing drugs should also be administered as food and drink in the above cases. Treatment of Pittaja Ashmari:— Similarly a medicated clarified butter cooked with the decoction of Kusha, Kasha, Shara, Gundra, Itkata, Morata, Ashmabhid, Shatavari, Vidari, Varahi, Shali-mula, Trikantaka, Bhalluka, Patala, Patha, Pattura, Kuruntika, Punarnava, Shirisha, with the paste (Kalka) consisting of Shilajatu, Madhuka (flower) and the seeds of Indivara, Trapusha and Ervaruka, would speedily bring about the disintegration of Pittaja Ashmari (calculi, etc.). An alkali, Yavagu (gruel), soup, a decoction, or milk, properly prepared with the above Pitta-subduing drugs, should also be prescribed as food and drink in these cases. Treatment of Kaphaja Ashmari:— The use of medicated clarified butter prepared from the milk of a she-goat† and cooked with the paste (Kalka) of the drugs constituting the Varunadi group, Guggulu, Ela, Harenu, Kushtha, the Bhadradi group, Marica, Citraka, Surahva and the Ushakadi group, leads to the speedy disintegration and expulsion of the Ashmari (stone, etc.) due to the action of the deranged Kapha. So also the use of an alkali, Yavagu (gruel), soup, milk, or a decoction, properly prepared with the above Kapha-subduing drugs, is recommended as food and drink in such cases. A potion consisting of the powdered fruit of the Pichuka, Amkola, Kataka, Shaka and Indivara mixed with treacle and water proves beneficial in cases of Gravel (Sarkara). The bones of the Krauncha, camel and ass, as well as the drugs known as Shvadamshtra, Talamuli, Ajamoda, Kadamba- roots and Nagara pounded together and administered through the vehicle of wine (Sura) or hot water, leads to the disintegration of Sharkara (gravel). The milk of an ewe mixed with powdered Trikantaka- seeds and honey should be used for seven days for the disintegration and separation of an Ashmari. Alkaline Treatments:— An alkali should be prepared from the ashes of the drugs used in the preparation of the aforesaid medicated clarified butters, by dissolving and filtering them in ewe’s urine The alkali should then be slowly boiled with an alkali similarly prepared from the dung of domestic animals, with the powders of Trikatu and the drugs of the Ushakadi group thrown into them as an after-throw. It proves curative in cases of stone, Gulma, and gravel. Alkalies from burnt bark of sesamum, Apamarga, plantain, Palasha and barley taken with the urine of an ewe destroy the gravel (Sharkara). As an alternative, the alkalies of Patala and Karavira should be used in the preceding manner. Two Tola (Aksha) weights of the pastes of Shvadamstra, Yashti-madhu and Brahmi (mixed with ewe’s urine) should be given to the patient; or the expressed juice of the Edaka, Shobhanjana and Markava (with the said urine) should be given, or a potion consisting of the pasted roots of the Kapotavamka with Kanjika, or Sura, etc., should be administered. Milk boiled with the aforesaid drug (Kapotavamka) should be taken by a patient in case there is pain (in urinating). Milk boiled with Triphala or Varshabhu should be administered as a drink and a decoction of the drugs of the Vira-taradi group should be employed in all these cases. A physician should have recourse to the following measures (surgical operations) in cases where the above-mentioned decoctions, medicated milk, alkalies, clarified butter and Uttara-vasti (urethral syringe) of the aforesaid drugs, etc., would prove ineffective. Surgical operations in these cases do not prove successful even in the hands of a skilful and experienced surgeon; so a surgical (Lithotomic) operation should be considered a remedy that has little to recommend itself. The death of the patient is almost certain without a surgical operation and the result to be derived from it is also uncertain. Hence a skilled surgeon should perform such operations only with the permission of the king. Modes of Surgical Operations:— The patient should be soothed (Snigdha) by the application of oleaginous substances, his system should be cleansed with emetics and purgatives and be slightly reduced thereby; he should then be fomented after being anointed with oily unguents; and be made to pertake of a meal. Prayers, offerings and prophylactic charms should be offered and the instruments and surgical accessories required in the case should be arranged in the order laid down in the Agropaharaniya chapter of the present work (Sutra-sthana, ch. V.). The surgeon should use his best endeavors to encourage the patient and infuse hope and confidence in the patient’s mind. A person of strong physique and unagitated mind should be first made to sit on a level board or table as high as the knee-joint. The patient should then be made to lie on his back on the table placing the upper part of his body in the attendant’s lap, with his waist resting on an elevated cloth cushion. Then the elbows and knee-joints (of the patient) should be contracted and […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Time-Frequency Analysis of Chanting Sanskrit Universal Sound “OM” Mantra by author:- Ajay Anil Gurjar and Siddharth A. Ladhake | Sipna’s College of Engineering & Technology, Amravati University, Maharashtra, India To incorporate spiritual welfare in step with our substance welfare, meditation provides as a way. Highly sensitive expressive experienced people are more probable to be satisfied and efficient in their life in recent days. It turns out that simultaneously they cannot give concentration and think discursively. Whether in the medical or technological or social spheres, to develop our excellence of life, human venture has sought all down the ages. Promoting the quality of our mind together with our material standard of living is essential to improve our quality of life. To deal with the increasing stress of modern standard of living, Humanity is progressively turning in the direction of different meditative practices. People have been heading for their gawk inwards in propose to attain peace of mind, since they are not capable to locate steadiness in the external world. Modern psychotherapists have begun to discover various therapeutic benefits of meditation practices. Meditation induces the state of relaxation and the altered state of consciousness. They are particularly efficient in psychotherapy. However, for inculcating a more positive attitude in the direction of life at large, meditation is being utilized as a personal growth device over everything else recently. For psychological stress, Speech signal is uttered to be a considerable indicator. The speech signal expresses the information enclosed in the vocal word. As with several real-world signals, Speech signals are non-stationary. Hence the frequency contents changes diagonally the time; Fourier analysis is unconvincing. Speech signal processing refers to the acquisition, manipulation, storage, transfer and output of human utterances by a computer. The main goals are the recognition, synthesis and compression of human speech. Speech signals are including the features such as temper, physical characteristics and added pragmatic information. Most of these characteristics are audible as well. Concerning 25% of information enclosed in a clean speech signal refers the speaker. Through abstract psychological procedures speech production initiates the aspiration to communicate and the thought that is to be communicated. There are quantities of human verbal communications that are effectively non-linguistic, even if speech is an oral action which is greatly verbal. Tone of voice excellence, prosody, rhythm and pausing are the non-verbal characteristics. For a non-verbal signaling system, these phenomena stand which interweave with the verbal or linguistic system. In the midst of supplementary things, information about the physiological and psychological condition of the speaker is carried by the non-verbal content of the voice. Since, undoubtedly perceptible (nonverbal) action typifies human beings; they are capable of identifying dissimilar states. Our mind is entirely permitted to focus and give attention extra on sound by the repetition of Mantra i.e. chanting. The additional features that distract our energies for instance other thoughts, sensations and interruptions are too cleaned away by the repetition of mantra. As the mind clears away the mess of unnecessary internal discourse, our senses become more heightened and mind becomes sharper and perspective. The theory in using mantras or chanting is that the body and mind begin to resonate with the frequency of the voice, helping to organize thoughts and consciousness. Reciting a mantra continuously “purifies the speech and ‘protests the mind’ by maintaining a constant spiritual connection; and of course it helps disperse mental chatter”. If there is no religious preference then the sound vibration ‘OM’ is a universally recognized mantra .The sound of OM is also called Pranava, meaning that it sustains life and runs through Prana or breathes. The OM is composed of three letters, A, U, and M. These symbolize the practitioner’s impure body, speech, and mind Chanting OM (AUM) will bring us to a state of purity in body mind and soul. The chanting of ‘OM’ mantra drives away all worldly thoughts and removes distraction and infuses new vigor in the body. Modern science has to reaffirm that OM mantra chanting allows our mind to focus and clear away unnecessary thoughts, sensations and distractions which divert our energies. In this paper, by utilizing signal processing techniques OM mantra chant signal is analyzed to endorse its effects on consciousness and steadiness of mind. The Time-Frequency analysis is performed on the OM chant signal using wavelet transforms. Our analysis results confirm that the chanting of OM mantra will improve our consciousness and give steadiness to mind by clearing all worldly thoughts. Mantra:- Mantra is intrinsically related to sound and sound is reverberating in everything in this universe. A Mantra is a sound repeated over and over until it integrates into our consciousness – frees the mind from its constant doing, and elevates us to an altered state of awareness. In this state, we can connect with our soul at its most profound level, achieving a state of universal consciousness. Mantras have some features in common with spells, in that they are a translation of the human will or desire into a form of action. As symbols, sounds are seen to effect what they symbolize. Mantra has been called the sound-body of God: It is God in the form of sound. Mantra helps to quieten the mind. It works because it actively chases away our errant thoughts. Mantra helps to clear our mind and purify our inner being. This purification is essential to good meditation. OM Mantra:- The basic mantra is OM or ‘Aum’, which in Vedic dharma is known as the ‘pranava mantra,’ the source of all mantras. If there is no religious preference then the sound vibration ‘OM’ is a universally recognized mantra. It is the representation of the Supreme Being. The past, present and the future are all included in this one sound. Meditation on this sacred syllable is said to satisfy every need and leads to liberation. The power of chanting the OM mantra is as follows: The chanting of OM drives away all worldly thoughts and removes distraction […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would deal mainly with the Glossary A Abda – Year (as in Yugabda 5110 (2009) Abhijit Nakshatra: Abhijit Nakshatra is called the intercalary(IC) Nakshatra as it appear as a small (smaller duration as compared to normal duration of Nakshatra 13d 20m) Nakshatra between Uttarashadha and Sravana. The duration of Uttarashadha is divided into four parts and the first three paadas are assigned to Uttarashadha, which makes the duration of Uttarashadha to be 10deg with each paada to be 2d 30m. The remaining one paada of Uttarashadha is assigned to Abhijit, the intercalary Nakshatra. Similarly beginning 1/15th part of Sravana is given to Abhijit, making its total length to be 253.33 min, i.e., 4d 13m 20s. The remaining 14/15th part of Sravana is assigned to the four padas of Sravana, making the total duration of Sravana to be 12d 26m 40s Acharya, आचायर् – a spiritual guide or teacher. Adharma, अधमर् – absence of righteousness, disorder, evil, immorality Adhikamaasa or intercalary month – Leap month or intercalary month introduced to account for the lack of synchronization between a lunar period and a solar period, i.e., the solar period (or year) is not an exact multiple of a lunar month. Literally means additional month. An intercalation takes place when 2 lunar months begin in the same solar month, ,the former of the 2 is called the intercalary month or adhikamaasa Adi – first, primordial as in Adi Sankara Aditi – In Hinduism, Aditi (Sanskrit – limitless) is a goddess of the sky, consciousness, the past, the future and fertility. She is an ancient goddess, mother of Agni and the Adityas with Kashyapa. She is associated with cows, a very holy animal in Vedic beliefs. Aditi is the daughter of Daksha and Veerni. She gave birth to the Devas who were beautiful, intelligent and pious to the Almighty. Although the goddess Aditi is mentioned nearly eighty times in the rig – veda, it is difficult to get a clear picture of her nature. She is usually mentioned along with other gods and goddesses, there is no one hymn addressed exclusively to her, and unlike many other vedic deities, she is not obviously related to some natural phenomenon. compared to Usha and Prithvi, her character seems ill defined. Perhaps the most outstanding attribute of Aditi is her motherhood. She is preeminently the mother of the Adityas, a group of 7 or 8 gods which include Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Daksha and Ansa. (2.27.1) Aditi is also said to be the mother of the great god Indra, the mother of kings (2.27), and the mother of gods (1.113.19). Unlike Prithvi, however, whose motherhood is also central to her nature, Aditi does not have a male consort in the Rig-veda. as a mothering presence, Aditi is often asked to guard the one who petitions her (1.106.7 ; 8.18.6) or to provide him or her with wealth, safety, and abundance (10.100; 1.94.15). Aditya – In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. In the Rigveda, they are seven deities of the heavens, chief of these being Varuna, followed by Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksha, and Ansa, the seventh Aditya was probably the Sun, Surya or Savitar. As a class of gods, the Rigvedic Adityas were distinct from the Visvedevas. In the Yajurveda (Taittiriya Samhita), their number is given as eight. In the Brahmanas, their number is expanded to twelve, corresponding to the twelve months:Ansa ,Aryaman, Bhaga ,Daksha ,Dhatri, Indra, Mitra, Ravi, Savitar, Surya , Varuna, Yama Aditya in the (Chāndogya-Upanishad) is also a name of Vishnu, in his Vamana (dwarf) Avatar. Adhyasa – Used to refer to the ‘mistake’ that we make when we ‘superimpose’ a false appearance upon the reality or mix up the real and the unreal. Adrishta – opposite of drishta or Unseen,a metaphor for the consequences of past actions,which may be unanticipated Advaita – Not two (dvaita) Ahimsa – Abstention from injury to all life forms AmAvasya, अमावस्य़ -new moon Analemma – At noon in a perfect world, the sun would always be positioned 93 million miles directly over the equator, and the Earth, an unblemished sphere, would rotate evenly on a precisely vertical axis. The seasons would never change. Every day would last as long as every other. And we’d never have the equinoxes and solstices that mark the four quarters of the year. As it happens, however, the Earth’s axis is tilted and, according to Ruth Freitag, a senior science specialist at the Library of Congress, the “slightly eccentric ellipse” of the Earth’s orbit around the sun led astronomers to come up with a consistent way to determine mean time, the time by which we all set our clocks. “The natural system is full of variables, and that’s without even considering the irregularities of the Earth’s rotation, which came to light in the late 19th century,” says Freitag. Thus we have the analemma, the somewhat mysterious looking figure-eight diagram on many globes and maps. The analemma charts where and when the sun will appear directly overhead in the “torrid zone,” between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The curves of the analemma also mark the solstices and equinoxes. The winter solstice, occurring when the sun is at its southernmost position in the torrid zone, is shown on the most extreme point of an analemma’s lower arc. In the days before the radio, the analemma was also useful for correcting clocks,” says author David Greenhood in his book “Mapping.” The days may be dark now but the horizon looks bright: Since the winter solstice marks the shortest day and the longest night of the year, the days will begin to stretch out from now until the summer solstice. Come February and March, when cold temperatures have […]