Cosmo Graphical Mapping | 102
In the previous article Cosmo Graphical Mapping | Jambudvipa | 101 author has discussed on concepts of Jambudvipa, saptadvipa, catur dvipa and more. The following article would be a continuity topic on the same. Readers are expected to read the previous article before reading the following one. Figure shown above is a reproduction of the kurmavibhaga from a modem edition of a medieval astrological text, the Narapatijayacarya, which was intended…
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: OJAS – The Vital Nectar of life presented by authors || A. B. Bagde || Sawant R. S. || Yanpallewar S. U || Nikumbh M. B. || Dhimdhime R. S. An Article in Journal of Biological and Scientific Opinion · April 2014 | Bagde A. B et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion · Volume 2 (2). 2014. According to Ayurveda, Ojas is a essence present in every dhatu (tissue) and considered as Sara of all the seven dhatus starting from Rasa to Shukra and responsible for the strength of the body. The purest substance in the universe and omnipresent in the human being, Ojas is responsible consciousness, purity in thoughts, health, positivity in feelings in every situation, better immunity, longevity, intelligence and memory. According to Ayurveda, Ojas is one of most important element for maintains and sustaining of life. All human beings are well nourished by Ojas and its decrease leads to the cessation of life. Though Ojas is located in the Hridya (heart), it pervades all over the body. It controls or regulates the whole working system of the body. In Veda Bala, Prana, Veerya, Kapha etc terms are considered as the synonyms of Ojas. In Ayurveda Ojas is also known as Bala (strength) because it provides strength to the body in terms of physical, mental, immunological and resistance to the body. It is a bit difficult to define Ojas as per modern methodology. Various authors have mentioned the concept Ojas in their own way which has made the topic of Ojas more controversial. Therefore this review article attempts to create certainty of Ojas understandable in scientific way and it’s over all effects on human body which will be helpful for scholars in treatment of diseases and advising precautions. According to the context of physical health and vitality, Ojas means “vigor”. In Ayurvedic literatures, Bala, Prakriti and Kapha theses types of words are used as a synonym of Ojas. Charak has mentioned that the kapha in its prakrita avastha (normal state) then it promotes strength, lubrication, virility, immunity, resistance and stability in the form of Ojas. According to Sushruta, Ojas is the fine essence of all the Dhatus and the superfine essence of Shukra dhatu (reproductive tissue) which are responsible for biological strength, vitality and immunity in the body which make a person physically active. Our physical, mental and spiritual strength is totally dependent on Ojas. This is our best safeguard against mental and physical disease. Ojas gets formed first in the body of living beings. This indicates that Ojas is established during the time of the fertilization of sperm and ovum. It means Ojas is already exists in sperm and ovum in the Saar form. When sperm and ova combine with soul Garbha is formed. In Morula stage of fetus Ojas is present in the form of Garbha Sara. When all body parts of fetus formed, Ojas manifested by its symptoms. In other words we can say that this Ojas before pregnancy remains in sperm and ovum. In the 8th month of pregnancy, Sthira Guna of Ojas is not established completely. Therefore Ojas is unstable in 8th month because exchange of Ojas takes place through blood vessels from mother to fetal heart and from fetal to mother’s heart. When Ojas is transmitted from Garbha (fetus) to mother, she looks happy and born fetus at this time will be prone to develop infectious disorders. Due to which delivery in this month is to be considered dangerous. Ojas gets nourishment after digestion of food. In short we can say that maintenance of Ojas is dependent on Ojas nourishing food and its proper digestion. Good nourishing quality of food with deficient Jatharagni (digestive energy) causes vitiation in the Ojas. Controversies about Ojas:- Some scholars of Ayurveda say that Ojas is an Upadhatu (secondary tissue) because the term dhatu applies to the function of Dharana (supporting) and Poshana (nourishing). Ojas only supports the body, it is not nourishing it. So it can not be the eighth dhatu. Formation of Ojas:- The best way to describe formation of Ojas is to understand how honey is made. Nearly ten to twenty thousand bees collect the nectar or essence of thousands of fruits and flowers and stored them into their hives for the formation of honey. Similarly Ojas is also the nectar or essence and is the end product of various physiological process. Dwelling place of Ojas:- Primary location of Ojas is the heart, from where it circulates to and circulated in the entire body. There are two places where Ojas prevails Para Ojas – Hridya Sthan (in the heart) Apara Ojas – Sarva Sharira Vyapi (all over the body) like ghee in milk or honey in flowers But in Bhela Samhita, Acharya Bhela has described twelve sites of Ojas in the body. They are as follows: Rasa (plasma) Shonita or Rakta (Blood) Mamsa (muscles) Meda (fats) Asthi (bones) Majja (bone marrow) Shukra (semen) Sweda (sweat) Pitta (GIT secretions) Shleshma (mucoid secretions) Mutra and Purisha (urine and stool) Types of Ojas:- According to Acharya Chakrapani two types of Ojas found in the body. They are as follows. 1. Para Ojas:- Acharya Charak mentioned that Hridaya (heart) is dwelling place of Para Ojas. It is best and most important. Its parinama is ashta bindu (eight drops). It is highly pure (without any waste ingredient). This Para Ojas is responsible for continuation of life, therefore whenever, there is any decrease or loss in the volume of Para Ojas it would gives rise to grave diseases and instantaneous death of that person. Therefore the protection of Para Ojas is the main aim of Yogic practices. 2. Apara Ojas:- Apara Ojas is also known as Shleshmika Ojas because its properties are similar to Shleshma (Kapha). Apara Ojas is present all whole the body. According to Acharya Charak, the quantity of Ojas in a healthy individual is Ardhanjali (one anjali represents the volume equal to that of two hands […]
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. Readers are advised to complete the previous article Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras | Soundaala | 103 before proceeding further. Shaktyadhikaranam: The Power. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1:- “Shaktayassapta” | “The power sources are seven.” Bodhaananda Vritti: In the functioning of the vimaana, there are 7 distinct operating forces. They are named udgamaa, panjaraa, sooryashaktyapa-karshinee or that which extracts solar power, parashaktyaakarshinee or that which extracts opposite forces, a set of 12 shaktis or forces, kuntinee, and moolashakti or primary force. At set spots in the vimaana, the motors which produce these 7 powers should be installed, duly wired and equipped with springs and wheels, as prescribed. It is said in “Yantra-sarvasva: “The seven kinds of powers which are required for the Vimaana are produced by 7 motors which are named tundila, panjara, amshupa, apakarshaka, saandhaanika, daarpanika, and shaktiprasavaka. Each of these produces its specific power. Thus tundilaa produces udgamaa shakti, panjaraa produces the panjaraa shakti, shaktipaa produces the power which sucks solar power, apakarshaka produces the power which plucks the power of alien planes, sandhaana yantra produces the group of 12 forces, daarpanikaa produces kuntinee shakti, and shakti-prasava yantra produces the main motive power. Saunaka Sutra also says: “There are seven sources of power of the vimaana: fire, earth, air, sun, moon, water and sky. The seven kinds of powers are named udgamaa, panjaraa, solar heat absorber, alien force absorber, solar electric dozen, kuntinee, and primary force.” “Soudaaminee-kalaa” says: Ma, la, ya, ra, sa, va, na constitute the seven vimanic forces. Ma is udgamaa, la is panjaraa, ya is solar heat absorber, ra is the solar dozen, sa is alien force absorber, va is kuntinee, and na is primary force. Their actions are thus defined in “Kriyaa-saara”: “The ascent of the vimana is by udgamaa shakti. Its descent is by panjaraa-shakti. Solar heat absorbing is by shaktyapakarshinee. Alien force restraining is by parashakty snatcher. Spectacular motion of the vimaana is by the vidyud-dwaadashaka-shakti. All these various activities are by the prime force of the vimana.” Vidyuddwaadashaka is thus explained in “Soudaaminee-kalaa”: “The spectacular motions of the vimana are of 12 kinds. Their motive forces are also 12. The motions and the forces are, proceeding, shuddering, mounting, descending, circling, speeding, circumambulating, side-wise motion, receding, anti-clockwise motion, remaining motionless, and performing miscellaneous motions.” Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2:- “Shaktayah-pancha -iti-Narayanaha.| “Narayana holds that the forces are five only, and not twelve.” Bodhaananda Vritti: Five forces are generated by the yantra or dynamo called Sadyojaata, and they produce all the spectacular motions of the vimana. Says “Shakti sarvasva”: “The motions of a vimaana are five, Chaalana, Gaalana, Panjaraprerana, Vakraapasarpana, and Spectacular manoeuvring.” Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 3:- “Chitrinyeveti sphotaayanah.” | Sphotaayana holds that chitrinee is the sole shakti. Bodhaananda Vritti: Sphotaayana declares that the force called chitrinee shakti is the one which enables the vimana to perform spectacular manoeuvres. “Shakti-sarvasva” says that both from experience and scientific knowledge Sphotaayana propounds the view that 32 various kinds of motions of the vimaana are solely by the power of Chitrinee-shakti. “Kriyaa-saara ” also states that Chitrinee force of the 17th quality is solely responsible for the 32 types of aeronautical motions. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 4:- “Tadantarbhaaavaat Saptaiveti” | “The shaktis are 7 only, and include all others” Bodhaananda Vritti: Out of the five forces produced by the sadyojaata mechanism, panjaraa shakti is the most important. The other shaktis are incidental to it, just as sparks are incidental to fire. Chaalana and other motions may therefore be said to result from panjaraa shakti. Says “Shaktibeeja”: “It is by the panjaraa shakti generated by sadyojaata yantra that the chalana and other shaktis branch out.” “Shakti kousthubha” also says, “From the panjaraa shakti produced by sadyojaata, emanate the chaalama and other 4 shaktis.” Thus since the other shaktis branch out from panjaraa shakti, they may be said to be in essence identical with it. That panjaraa and chitrinee are included in the seven shaktis which have been enumerated by Maharshi Bharadwaaja. Hence there cannot be said to be any conflict of opinions. Some even hold the view that each one of the seven shaktis is capable of producing all the 32 motions of the vimaana. But since each of the several motions of the plane is definitely ascribed to a particular kind of force, it would be incorrect to hold that one force could be responsible for the whole gamut of motions. Any attempt to give practical effect to such a theory would prove disastrous. Therefore the right conclusion is that the seven forces are the true cause of the 32 kinds of aerial activities of the vimaana. Yantraadhikaranam: Yantras: Machinery Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1:- “Athha Upayantraani.” | “The Mechanical Contrivances.” Bodhaananda Vritti: Having described the forces or energies required for the various functions of the vimaana, now the mechanisms necessary for these activities are described. “Kriyaa-saara” says: “As stated by the eminent Bharadwaaja in “Yantrasarvasva”, the mechanical equipments necessary for the vimaana are 32. They are vishwakriyaadarsa or universal reflecting mirror, shaktyaakarshana yantra or force absorbing machine, pariveshakriyaayantra or halo-producing machine, angopasamhara yantra or machine for folding up or contracting its parts, vistrutakriyaa yantra, or expanding yantra, vyroopyadarpana or fantastic mirror, padmachakra-mukha, kuntinee shakti yantra and pushpinee shakti yantra, pinjula mirror, naalapanchaka and guhaa-garbhabhidha yantras, tamo-yantra or darkness spreading machine, pancha vaataskandhanaala, roudree mirror, vaataskandha naalakcelaka, vidyudyantra or electric generator, and shabdakendra mukha, vidyuddwaadashaka, praanakundalinee, shaktyudgama, vakraprasaarana, and shaktipanjara keelaka, shirah-keelaka and shabdaakarshana, pataprasaaranayantra, dishaampati yantra, pattikaabhraka yantra, suryashaktyapakarshana yantra or collector of solar energy, apasmaaradhooma prasaarana or ejector of poisonous fumes, stambhana yantra, and vyshwaanara naalayantra.” They are thus described in “yantrasarvasva,” chapter 7, by the illustrious Maharshi Bharadwaaja. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1:- Athopayantraani.” | “Subsidiary Yantras.” Bodhaananda Vritti: Prepare a square or circular base […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Amrita Bindu Upanishad Translated by Swami Madhavananda which is later Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta. In the article we would like to present only the points that are categorized under the sector of Amrita Bindu Upanishad Om! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om! Let there be Peace in me! Let there be Peace in my environment! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me! The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds, pure and impure. The impure mind is that which is possessed of desire, and the pure is that which is devoid of desire. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men’s bondage and liberation. The mind that is attached to sense-objects leads to bondage, while dissociated from sense-objects it tends to lead to liberation. So they think. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense objects, therefore, the mind should always be made free of such desire, by the seeker after liberation. When the mind, with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated, is fully controlled within the heart and thus realises its own essence, then that Supreme State (is gained). The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. This is Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also, all else is argumentation and verbiage. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity. That alone is Brahman, without component parts, without doubt and without taint. Realizing “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman. (Brahman is) without doubt, endless, beyond reason and analogy, beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realizes, “There is neither control of the mind, nor its coming into play”, “Neither am I bound, nor am I a worshipper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained liberation”. Verily the Atman should be known as being the same in Its states of wakefulness, dreaming, and dreamless sleep. For him who has transcended the three states there is no more rebirth. Being the one, the universal Soul is present in all beings. Though one, It is seen as many, like the moon in the water. Just as it is the jar which being removed (from one place to another) changes places and not the Akasa enclosed in the jar – so is the Jiva which resembles the Akasa. When various forms like the jar are broken again and again the Akasa does not know them to be broken, but He knows perfectly. Being covered by Maya, which is a mere sound, It does not, through darkness, know the Akasa (the Blissful one). When ignorance is rent asunder, It being then Itself only sees the unity. The Om as Word is (first looked upon as) the Supreme Brahman. After that (word-idea) has vanished, that imperishable Brahman (remains). The wise one should meditate on that imperishable Brahman, if he desires the peace of his soul. Supreme Brahman. One having mastered the Word-Brahman attains to the Highest Brahman. After studying the Vedas the intelligent one who is solely intent on acquiring knowledge and realisation, should discard the Vedas altogether, as the man who seeks to obtain rice discards the husk. Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour. (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk, and the many-branched Vedas as the cows. Like the butter hidden in milk, the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind. Taking hold of the rope of knowledge, one should bring out, like fire, the Supreme Brahman. I am that Brahman indivisible, immutable, and calm, thus it is thought of. In Whom reside all beings, and Who resides in all beings by virtue of His being the giver of grace to all – I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being, I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being. Om! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om! Let there be Peace in me! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me! Here it concludes the Amritabindupanishad, as contained in the Krishna-Yajur- Veda.
Mathomathis would like continue from the previous article. Users are advised to read the previous article, before proceeding further. In the following article we would like to start with Nature of Poetry. Righteous and truthful: According to the poets of the Ṛigveda, the first and the foremost characteristic of a good poetry is its being righteous and in accordance with the cosmic law or Ṛta and it should contain and propagate the truth (satyam). Sage Dīrghatamāḥ directs his nicely flowing outpourings born of Ṛta towards god Agni (RV 1.141.1): Only the poetry which contains Ṛta lights up the Universe and the poets who compose it, shine in the world (7.7.6) : The hundredfold inexhaustible treasure of truth is the primeval source, the father, of poetry (RV 3.26.9): Even the sun shines more brilliantly, if words full of Ṛta are addressed to it (10 .138.2): The word sūnṛtam/śūnṛtā vāk also occurs in the Ṛigveda (and Atharvaveda) and is usually understood to be an antonym of anṛtam. As such it yields the meanings of ‘that which corresponds to Ṛta, as well as of ‘nice’ and ‘pleasing”. In RV 3.31.2 Indra is said to dispel adversities through sūnṛtā (vāk) combined with ṛta: The shining goddess Uṣas is praised for attaining pleasing and beneficial speech (RV 1.92.7) One of the frequent requests of a poet unto his deity is to bless him with sūnṛtā speech: so asmai sūnṛtāṃ duhe (AV 10.6.13)- Taking cue from such Vedic references, poet Bhavabhūti in his Uttararāmacaritam (5.31) remarks that a sūnṛtā Vāk is known to fulfill all desires of a human being:Needs inspiration from above : The Ṛigvedic poet knows well that unless there is inspiration from above, poetry cannot take shape. No amount of mechanical effort would bring about good poetry. Therefore he prays gods, especially Brahmanaspati or Bṛihaspati (cf. RV. I. 18, the whole poem) to inspire him. Brihaspati not only inspires him but also reveals the first form of Vāc (perhaps paśyantī is meant, not parā) to him (RV 10.71.1): Only then the best of the thoughts of the Ṛṣi, which is also beneficial to the world, comes out of the cave of his heart (10.71. 1cd): In another hymn (2.33.6) the poet declares that god Rudra has inspired him (unmā mamand vriṣbho marutvān) after he requested him to do so with an emotionally charged conscience (tvakṣīyasā vayasā nādhamānam). In fact, the poet asks for the favour of god himself, whom he is going to praise, to inspire him. Sage Agastya prays Aśvins to gift him with honeyed speech in order to be able to compose a nice hymn in their praise (RV I. 184.4) Poetry and visionary insight : The Sūkta X.177 of the Ṛigveda deserves a special mention in this regards where this inner light of visionary insight is symbolically represented as Pataṅga which has the core meaning of “a flying object” and as such has later been used for a ‘bird’, ‘the sun’ or a ‘moth’. However in the present hymn it refers to the flight of poetic imagination. This ‘deity’ Pataṅga contains in himself the divinely inspired, shining speech which has its source in heaven where it is firmly established and well protected within the sphere of Ṛta (RV 10.177.2) : “As soon as the vipaścits achieve this intuitive insight, the mysteries of the Supreme power start unfolding themselves to their hearts and their minds, the kavis start descending right up to the depth of the ocean and the vedhasas desire to reach the pinnacle of light” (X.177.1) : That such an inner light emerging in the heart of a poet enables him to see and visualize everything in the heaven and earth is corroborated by Ṛṣi Viśvāmitra in the following verse (RV 3.26.8): Dhīḥ : The inner light as source of poetry On closely looking at the meaning of the word Dhīḥ, it appears that it is the exceptional faculty of acquiring knowledge of transcendent truth or reality; the inner light. This is the reason why Uṣas, the goddess of light, is frequently requested to grant Dhīḥ to the poets (cf 7.79.5) and Savitṛ, another god connected with light, has been requested to channelize those dhiyas in the right direction (cf. the famous Gāyatrīmantra 3.62.10). Ṛṣi Nābhāka requests god Varuṇa to grant dhīḥ, wonderful ideas (kratu) and efficiency (dakṣam) to a budding poet, śikṣamāṇasya one who has just started composing poetry, with which he perhaps means his own self (RV 8.42.3): The word śikṣamāṇa (=still learning) reminds us here of the ‘kāvyajñaśikṣayā abhyāsaḥ’ of Mammaṭa (cf. Kāvyaprakāśa, I.3) as well as the expression ‘amandaścābhiyogaḥ’ along with ‘naisargikī pratibhā’ and ‘nirmalaṃ śrutaṃ’ (naisargikī ca pratibhā śrutaṃ ca bahu nirmalaṃ. amandaścābhiyogaḥ) as sources of poetry, where pratibhā or śakti can be equated with dhiyaḥ. Not every attempt at writing a poetry or not every literary composition of even a vipaścit meets with the expected success. There is a complete hymn in the RV (I.18) starting with ‘somānaṃ svaraṇaṃ kṛṇuhi brahmaṇaspate….’ in which poet Medhātithi prays to god Brahmaṇaspati to crown his poetic utterings with success: Unbroken tradition of poetry A Ṛigvedic poet is not only well aware of the long and unbroken tradition of the composition of poetry in his community, he is also proud of it. In the very first hymn of the Ṛigveda we hear the words: These are the words of Madhucchandas who belongs to the lineage of Viśvāmitra. He is well aware of the contribution of his great ancestors, the chief priests of the Bharatas, whose poems are mostly collected in the third book of the Ṛgveda. He has perhaps done “Kāvyajña-śikṣayābhyāḥ” under the guidance of his parents. Poet Śaṃyu of Bṛhaspati gotra addressing Indra remarks (RV 6.44.13): Although some poets like Agastya are modest to state that they are repeating what the veterans have also uttered (asarji vāṃ sthavirā vedhsā gīḥ RV 1.181.7), the others like Parucchepa entreat Indra that he ought to listen to a new composition by a new poet rather than to remain […]
Mathomathis would like to give a gist on the Poetry aspects of the Vedic system and few quotes of the rig veda as well. The remarkable truth about the Indian civilization is that it has had its beginning in poetry. The incipient stages in the establishment of the civilization had the potent contribution of the poets. And through the ritualistic pattern the Vedic poets regulated the life of the community and through poetry lent a shape to the Indian culture. It must be noted that till now hardly anything that is solemn and serious begins in India without singing a song and to adapt a Tennysonian phrase to our purpose, the Vedas sang the subcontinent into a nation. Just as the Greek tragedy had its origin in the religious ceremonials, in similar fashion and perhaps, more intimately, singing a song and reciting new poetical compositions were parts of the community rituals. The rituals bound the members of the community together and as such ritual was religion. Etymologically, the word religion is derived from the Latin religare which means to bind together. For the Vedic man rituals and poetry were close companions; each complemented the other. It may be difficult to find an example of ‘pure poetry’ in the Rig Veda since the atmosphere of ritualism pervades the poems, so much so that poetry formed an integral part of the rituals. So the social dimension of poetry cannot be confuted. The poet was socially committed. He was not lonely, idiosyncratic or aberrant as our modem poets are. He manifested a profound concern for human destiny and communication for him never posed a problem. He could engineer an admirable unification of the factors of rituals of community, poetry, and song as art forms, and philosophy that encompassed the grave subject of the origin of the world and man’s relation to it. We are reminded of a remark of Pierre-Simon Ballanche: ‘It is always a religious truth that the poet has to transmit. Religion and poetry are but one and the same. The poet is the priest’ (Furst 1980:78) Such a unique blend formed the quiddity of the Vedic culture. Indeed it was a large enough task that cannot be expected of a modem poet. But it must not be supposed that all the poets of the Rig Veda were cast in the same mold and their poetry was monolithic. Diverse philosophical thinking such as skepticism, agnosticism, pantheism have been at work behind the poet’s speech. In fact the Vedic poets thrived in and were nurtured by a philosophical environment. Heraclitus, who breathed his thoughts into his fragmentary poems in the company of the argumentative Plato and Aristotle, may amaze us but a Brihaspati or a Dirghatamas need not have the similar impact. In the context of the Rig Veda there is a close relation between philosophy and poetry. For a student of culture it is a point worth noticing that a philosopher in the Vedas is a poet. The truth in man is acknowledged when it sees the light of day through the vehicle of poetic speech. So truth needs the body of poetry to express itself. The philosophy in the Vedas is not epistemology or metaphysics alone, it is the philosophy of language and a philosophy of poetry as well. Also the Rig Veda is the glorious repository of high-quality poetry and canons of literary criticism of stupendous merit..The claim may sound tall but it is hardly so, for the statement of the claim is fully substantial. For an example we may refer to Eliot’s distinction between the man who suffers and the man who creates which was anticipated thousands of years ago by the imagery of the two birds perched on the same tree; one busies itself in pecking about grains and fruits while the other simply looks on disinterestedly. (‘Two birds, friends joined together clutch the same tree. One of them eats the fruit; the other looks on without eating’. 1.164.20 O’Flaherty 1994:78. The metaphor of the two birds occur in the Atharva veda IX,ix,20, Mundaka Upanishad in,I,l, Kathopanishad, VI,1, Gita XV,] and interestingly enough it appears in Rabindranath Tagore’s poem “Dui Pakhi”[“Two Birds”]) So art, religion; literature, and philosophy formed the potent co-ordinates in the genius of India. The commingling of intellect and emotion in man is instrumental to his complete satisfaction and importantly his satisfaction is in the satisfaction of all the elements. This forms a significant sector in the domain of the Vedic poet’s philosophy. We may now turn to Dirghatamas who was a stalwart poet and one of the profoundest philosophers of the Vedas. He has twenty-five poems to his credit in the Rig Veda collection. They are full of philosophy and abound in mysticism and symbolism. The Vedic people had the desired familiarity with the set of symbols quite unlike the modem reader who is baffled by the jumble of paradoxes and the sinuous matrix of symbols. It must be remembered that Dirghatamas recited his poems before a gathering of learned listeners. In one of his verses, Dirghatamas enquirers about the existence of any person who has seen the creation of the world. He thus makes us confront the pregnant relation that exists between the mysterious basic universe and the evolved world of experience. It is in this knowledge that real wisdom resides and the knowledge of the basic universe is achieved through a vision. The wise poets explore their hearts and by dint of their power of intuition come to know a lot about the stages of origination. ‘Poets seeking in then- heart with wisdom found the bond of existence in non-existence’.(10.129.4 O’ FIaherty 1994:25) Remarkably enough, it is only the power of the language of the poet that can stir the hidden universe to break forth with a meaning. If one can understand the language of the poet then he can also understand the mystery of the universe and Dirghatamas appears to suggest that it is the poets who comprehend the […]