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Mathomathis would like to present an article on: A genuine approach on Ancient Indian Science by author Prof. K.D.Abhyankar, F.N.A,F.A.Sc, F.N.A.Sc,A.R.A.S | Fellow , Indian National Science Academy (INSA), Hyderabad There are two opposite views about ancient Indian science. According to one conservative Indian view all knowledge is contained in the Vedas and one has to discover it by proper decoding of its contents. On the other hand western oriented people say that Indians were ignorant of science before they came into contact with the foreigners. Both these views are extreme and wrong. Knowledge grows exponentially with time like a nyagrodha i.e. banyan tree. The father learns something by experience. He transmits his knowledge to his son. The son in turn adds to it his mew experience and conveys it to the grandson, and so on. The present day knowledge is the result of such accumulation over thousands of generations. So it is not correct to say that every thing was known in the beginning itself. But surely there was an earlier simpler beginning and it should be our aim to discover the seed of nyagrodha tree of knowledge, which was sown in ancient times. The ancient knowledge need not be as complex as modern one. Same thing applies to technology. It would certainly take a long time to graduate from a potter’s wheel to an aeroplane. Hence one need not claim that the ancients were familiar with radio, television, air travel, theory of relativity and atom bombs. Of course they were intelligent enough like us to speculate about such things. In astronomy also we have to remember that there were no telescopes at that time. So there was no knowledge about galaxies and the expansion of the universe. However the ancients made good use of their eyes and simple devices like shanku (gnomon) and ghatikapatra (water clock) for discovering some basic facts about the heavens. And we endeavor to search them. Sense of History:- Secondly one has to have a proper historical perspective about Indian history. Here also there are two extreme views. According to one school Aryans, who spoke Sanskrit and produced the Vedic literature, came into India from outside around 1500 BC. So they would compress Vedic knowledge within this period. On the other hand traditionalists will vouch for several mahayugas of Indian history. Let us first look at the Aryan influx theory. It is based on two premises. One is the close affinity between Sanskrit and European languages. The other id the existence of 500 years old Indus valley civilization which is said to have been destroyed by the incoming Aryans, who were nomads. So Vedic knowledge cannot to be older then 1500 BC. However Malti Shndge of Pune has shown that there is a closer affinity of Sanskrit with the Sumerian and Akkadian languages of Mesopotamia. So it is more likely that these and European languages are offshoots of Sanskrit which is definitely Indian origin. Further Vedas do not talk about an earlier home of Aryans like Arianavayo of Parsis. In fact they praise the mighty Saraswati river of India with fondness and reverence. In older times saraswati was joined by yamuna in the east and Satadru (satlaj) in the west. Due to technonic movements of the earth they were diverted to Ganga and Sindhu, respectively and saraswati dried around 200 BC. Satellite photographs clearly show the dry bed of saraswati river in Rajastan. So Vedic people were living in India before that time and the so called Indus valley civilization. Most archeological sites of that civilization are found near the banks of old Saraswati. Now how far back can we go in time. It is now known that before 1000 BC the earth was passing through an ice age for a long time. Large parts of the earth were covered with the thick ice and people had to live in caves. The ice melted around 1000 BC and it was possible for men to inhabit land in river basins and take up agriculture. So one cannot go beyond 1000 BC. Our study of Vedic calendar takes us back to 7000 BC. Evolution of Vedic calendar:- Our present calendar i.e. Panchanga, is developed during the Siddhantic period of Indian astronomy starting from the beginning of Saka/Samvat eras. It is advanced by many famous astronomers from Arybhatta of 5th century to Samant Chandarashekhar of 20th century. Siddhantic astronomy makes use of the Greek methods of deferent’s and epicycles for computing the position of the sun, moon and taragrahas. So it is claimed that Indians borrowed all astronomical knowledge from them. It is even asserted that Vedanga Jyotish was borrowed from the Babylonians, although it is quite clear that Vedanga Jyotish belongs to 1400 BC while Babylonian astronomy thrived in 5th century BC. They forget that the concepts of tithis and nakshatras, which form an important element in our panchangas, were clearly defined in Vedangas Jyotish and represent the link between Siddhantic and earlier Vedic astronomy. As Siddhantic astronomy has already been studied extensively by many scholars we have concentrated on the study of Vedic astronomy with our genuine approach outlined here. India has a hoary astronomical tradition, but it is difficult to trace its development from the earliest epoch due to the lack of any systematic historical records. So one has to interpret the stray astronomical references in the Vedic literature, which covers a long period of time (700 BC to 500 BC) by logical reasoning. From times immemorial the sun, moon and stars have served as directional guides to travelers on land and sea, and now even to astronauts in space. They have also helped him in the measurement of time. When man learned civilization and settled down on land he found that the groups of stars known as Nakshatras (asterisms), which are seen before sunrise or after sunset and near the full moon, changed during the course of the year. It was discovered that the seasons of spring, summer, rains etc were closely […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Cosmo Graphical Mapping by JOSEPH E. SCHWARTZBERG. The following article would start a conversation on a topic called as: COSMOGRAPHIES: THE JAIN TRADITION Of the three ancient Indian religious traditions, that of the Jains appears to have had the greatest and most continuous preoccupation with cosmographical questions. To this day it is said, “Every [Jain] monk knows by heart, from the time of his noviciate, the verses of the samgrahanis [cosmographic texts]. He knows how to draw representations of them, and can sometimes even make models of them. He can also comment upon them in detail, following a long-established tradition.” Even to the laity the subject remains one of “absorbing interest,” and allegedly “cosmographic diagrams appear in all Jain temples.” The purpose of preparing cosmographies was essentially didactic. “All in all, the representation of the world which the Jains have elaborated permits them to show, in a condensed way, which would have a greater impact upon the mind of a believer, the myriads of destinies through which one will transmigrate in the course of innumerable aeons.” The same would, of course, also have been true of cosmographies of Hindu and Buddhist conception, though their religious use-especially in Hinduism, where metaphysics was largely left to the Brahman elite-was less than in the case of the relatively well-educated and affluent Jains. There are, in fact, so many surviving examples of premodern Jain cosmographies, not only in India but in major museums and art galleries throughout the world, that an inventory of those author have seen or know of would be far from complete and serve little purpose. Most of the known Jain cosmographies derive from Rajasthan and Gujarat, the two Indian states with the largest proportions of Jains in their population. Most of the surviving works were painted in gouache on paper, mainly in pastel hues, as parts of illuminated samgrahani manuscripts, the oldest thought to have been composed in the sixth or seventh century A.D. Of the extant illustrated recensions, however, none is said to be older than the fourteenth century. Additionally, there are many Jain cosmographies painted in gouache on cotton cloth, and surviving examples date at least as far back as the fifteenth century. Perhaps the principal reason ancient Jain cosmographies are so much more plentiful than those of the Hindus is that they were carefully preserved both in monasteries and in the bhandaras (libraries) that are characteristic adjuncts to Jain temples. There are no corresponding institutions in Hinduism. A third medium in which Jain cosmographies survive is stone, especially bas-reliefs in Jain temples and shrines, as in the case of the representation of Nandisvaradvipa. Not surprisingly, given the durability of the medium, the oldest of all the known cosmographies are sculpted in stone. These works date as far back as A.D. 1199-1200.121. Figure 1 presents a fifteenth-century view of Manusyaloka, in which the central continent, Jambudvipa. The circular mountain range midway across the ring continent of Pushkaradvipa,marking the limit of the world of man, is shown by the wavy outermost circle. Though the arrangement of land areas, mountains, rivers, lakes, and other features is essentially symmetrical, there are several places where rivers diverge like opposite spokes of a swastika, long a sacred symbol in Indian culture. Reproduction in black and white does not convey an idea of the colors, often vivid, that are characteristic of cosmographies of this sort. [About Figure 1: Manushya Loka(THE WORLD OF MAN) ACCORDING TO JAIN COSMOGRAPHICAL TEXTS. Depicted here are the so-called two and a half continents (adhai-dvipa) within which humans may be born. Jambudvipa, the central continent, is surrounded by the first ring ocean, Lavana Samudra (Salt Sea); and successively Dhatakikhanda, the first ring continent; Kalodhadi, the Black-Water Ocean; and the inner half of Puskaradvipa, the next ring continent up to Manusottara, the circular mountain range that limits the world of man. This artifact is gouache on cloth from western India, fifteenth century. Size of the original: 54.5 x 54.5 em. Courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (Circ. 91-1970, negative no. GB3636).] Conventions vary from one work to another, but there are certain broad tendencies. For example, it is usual to show water in blue with visual reinforcement provided by fish and a basket-weave pattern suggesting waves. Mountains are typically portrayed in one or more distinctive colors of a more intense hue than that of the continents where they are situated (though that is not so for the mountains of Pushkaradvipa, Meru in gold or some other prominent color, and so forth. On this work there is substantial text identifying various portions of Jambudvipa but not of the one and one-half surrounding continents. Other representations have even more extensive text, sometimes identifying several hundred individual features. Still others have little text or no text at all. In this view, as in most, the detail is greatest for the area of Mahavideha, the region bounded north and south by transverse mountain ranges and extending in a broad east-west band across the center of Jambudvipa to the Lavana Samudra (Salt Sea) to the east and west. Within Mahavideha, in addition to Mount Meru, are four “elephant-tusk mountains” (Vaksara) with tips close to Meru; the regions of Uttarakuru to the north and Devakuru to the south, bounded by the tusk like mountains; ten small lakes, five each in a north-south line; in each of the two kurus, emblematic trees on either side of the chains of lakes (the jambu being placed in Uttarakuru); the great rivers Sita and Sitoda, flowing east and west, respectively, from the two lakes closest to Meru; and thirty-two provinces, known as vijayas, ranged about those two rivers, eight each to the north and south, each with its own central mountain range and bounding rivers. Another noteworthy area of Jambudvipa is Bharata (India), the bow-shaped region at the continent’s southern extremity. An east-west Vijayardha mountain range crosses this region, and through it flow the rivers Ganga […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on:- Analysis Of Acoustic of “OM” Chant To Study It’s Effect on Nervous System, presented by author’s | Ajay Anil Gurjar , Siddharth A. Ladhake, Ajay P. Thakare | Sipna’s College of Engineering & Technology, Amravati (Maharashtra), India OM does not have a translation. Therefore, the Hindus consider it as the very name of the Absolute, it is body of sound. In the scriptures of ancient India, the OM is considered as the most powerful of all the mantras. The others are considered aspects of the OM, and the OM is the matrix of all other mantras. It has been recognized that the Mantras have beneficial effects on human beings and even plants. The syllable OM is quite familiar to a Hindu. It occurs in every prayer. Invocation to most gods begins with this syllable. OM is also pronounced as AUM. The syllable OM is not specific to Indian culture. It has religious significance in other religions also. Although OM is not given any specific definition and is considered to be a cosmic sound, a primordial sound, the totality of all sounds etc. The entire psychological pressure and worldly thoughts are removed by chanting OM Mantra .To systematically understand the sound ‘OM’ and its effect on nervous system is the endeavor of this research work. With proposed algorithm analysis has been carried out for the divine sound OM. By the following analysis author is trying to conclude that, OM is therefore serves as a brain stabilizer, which is also an energy medicine for human being under stress. OM Mantra itself is not a mere human invention, going long with particular cultures or groups. Rather, the OM Mantra (or AUM Mantra) is a symbol of deep realities that already exist. The levels of gross (A), subtle (U), and causal (M), and the states of waking (A), dreaming (U), and deep sleep (M) are definitely there, regardless of the symbolism captured in the mantra when stated as AUM Mantra. It is these realities that are most useful in our spiritual practices. If the OM mantra is repeated just for the feeling, having no sense of meaning at all, the experience can be quite pleasant, calming, and balancing. However, if one has a sense of the deeper meanings of the mantra, and different methods of using it, then the experience can be even richer and more revealing as one progress in yoga meditation. By experimenting with the various methods, one of them may emerge that feels most personally in tune. The use of this mantra can be profound. At first, it is best to use the mantra gently and for short periods of time. The insights from the OM mantra can be significant, and it is good to integrate the insights gradually with daily life. Om Mantra and Methods of Practice It is proposed by Swami Jnaneshvara Bharti that there are many rhythms in the body and mind, both gross and subtle. The sound of OM, rising and falling, at whatever speed is comfortable and natural. It may be very fast, several cycles per second. Or it may be slower, several seconds for each cycling of OM Mantra. Or it might become extremely slow; with the mmmmmm… sound continuing in the mind for much longer periods, but still pulsing at that slow rate. It is somewhat like one of these vibrations: OMmmOMmmOMmm… OMmmmmOMmmmmOMmmmm… OMmmmmmmmOMmmmmmmmOMmmm. This kind of awareness of the OM mantra can be used both at meditation time and during daily life. The OM mantra is allowed to be somewhat of a constant companion. It brings a centering, balancing quality to daily life. This doe’s not mean being in a dull, lethargic state. Rather, done well, it brings clarity of mind and a greater ability to be in the world, and selflessly serving others. This is not intended as a blocking mechanism to prevent dealing with one’s thought process or with the challenges of life. It is not a method of escapism. However, it definitely can have the effect of bringing focus to the mind, which can break a pattern of disturbing or distracting thoughts coming from the noisy or chattering mind. In this way, one has a greater openness to being aware of positive thoughts and spiritual realities that are always there, different methods are proposed to practice OM mantra. One method: Imagine the sound of OM Mantra internally, in the mind only, making no external sound. Allow the mantra to flow with the breath. Repeat like this: Exhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Inhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Exhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Inhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Exhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Inhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Another method: Alternatively, imagine the OM mantra only on exhalation, if that feels more comfortable: Exhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Inhale: ” (silence) ” Exhale: “OMmmmmmmm…” Inhale: ” (silence) ” In this practice, you come to experience the mind, breath, and mantra flowing in unison. This synchronization has a beautiful effect on meditation. Simply allow the OM Mantra to come and go with each inhalation and exhalation. Allow there to be no gap, no space, no pause between inhalation and exhalation, or between exhalation and inhalation. When the word OM is heard, what is the concept and object that comes to mind? What is that thing that goes along with that word, OM? The concept that goes with OM is the one-ness or entirety of the universe. The object that goes with the word OM is the entire universe, as a single unit, including the gross, subtle, causal planes of reality, both manifest and unmanifest. It means that whole, as if it was one, single object. It is that infinitely huge object, which is the object that goes with the word OM. There is a feeling of stretching, as if the attention had to get bigger and bigger, to contain the whole, the same way as the chair has a back, a seat, and legs, yet is collectively a chair. Continue to repeat OM, and continue to expand, so as to allow your attention to contain […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Oceans in Hindu Mythology by author R.L.S. Sikarwar Arogyadham (J.R.D. Tata Foundation for Reseach in Ayurveda & Yoga Sciences), Deendayal Research Institute, Chitrakoot, Dist. Satna (M.P.)-485 331. Since antiquity the oceans have played a significant role in Hindu religion and its greatness has been profusely illustrated in Holy Scriptures. The ocean has several Hindi and Sanskrit names and synonyms such as Samudra, Sagara, Sindhu, Jaladhi, Neernidhi, Bannidhi, Barees, Udadhi, Payodhi, Nadees, Toynidhi, Kampati, Makaralaya, Varunalaya, Mahodadhi etc. The ten synonyms of the ocean have been given in Ramcharitmanasa. Out of 10 different incarnations (Dasavatara) of Shrihari Vishnu, three avatars such as Matsya Avatar, Kurma Avatar and Varaha Avatar are directly associated with the oceans. In Rama Avatar, the bridge was constructed as per the desire of oceans and helped Lord Rama in various ways. As when the Ravana, the king of Lanka heard the news about the construction of bridge on the ocean by Lord Rama’s army led by engineers Nal & Neel, he astonished and said- “What! Has he really bridged the waves, the billows, the sea, the ocean, the floods, the deep, the main, the brine deep, the home of springs, the Lord of rivers?” The Origin of Oceans: Lord Ram’s ancestor Sagara whose sixty thousand sons dug out the bed of the ocean that is why ocean is called Sagar , the son of Sagara. Therefore, When Lord Rama asked Vibhishana, how we should cross the vast ocean? Vibhishana suggested “for being an older in your family, ocean, My Lord, will think out and suggest a plan. The whole host of bears and monkeys will thus be able to cross the sea without an effort“. The same thing is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana as Vibhishana suggested this immeasurable ocean was dugout by King Sagara and Lord Rama is the descendant of Sagara. Therefore, the ocean must help him. The origin of Seven Oceans and Continents: It is mentioned in Shrimad Bhagwata’s Canto-5, first chapter, the seven oceans and continents were created by the movement of chariot of the king Priyabrata, the son of Swayambhuva Manu. After Swayambhuva Manu’s son was trained in the renounced order (Priyavrata) thus became the master of the universe where he endowed with powerful arms of command together with them pulled the bowstring loudly to defeat all who opposed the dharma. Without interruption for 110 million years there was the rule of the great soul who with the daily increasing amiability, femininity, shyness, laughs, glances and exchanges of love [in his repeated births] with his wife Barhishmati enjoyed a life of pleasure, but confounded and defeated by it he lost his power of discernment. Not appreciating that the sun god, as long as he circumambulated mount Meru, lit up one side of the earth and left the other half in the dark, he who in his worship of the Fortunate One was of a supernatural power then said: ‘I’ll make the night as brilliant as the day’, and to enforce that he followed the orbit of the sun in a chariot, exactly seven times and with the same speed, like he was a second sun. Thus proceeding with the wheels of his chariot that created trenches with their rims, the seven oceans came about which divided the earth (Bhu-mandala) into the seven dvipas (the continents or islands). Known as Jambu (related to Syzygium cumini), Plaksha (related to Ficus virens), Salmali (related to Bombax ceiba), Kusa (related to Desmostchya bipinnata), Kraunca, Saka and Pushkara each of them is twice the size of the preceding ocean in the beyond of which it all around is situated. Those seven oceans consisting of salt water, sugarcane juice, liquor, clarified butter, milk, fluid yogurt and sweet water are of the same size as the islands they as the trenches (of his wheels) one after the other consecutively fully enclose. For each of the dvipas separately the husband of Barhishmati beginning with Jambudvipa, placed one of his faithful sons named Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Hiranyareta, Ghritaprishthha, Medhatithi and Vîtihotra as their king. It is mentioned in Ramcharitmanas that the great king Pratapbhanu and Lord Rama ruled over on all seven continents. By the might of his arm he subdued all the seven continents and let their princes go on payment of tribute. Now Pratapbhanu became the undisputed monarch of the whole the world. Undisputed sovereign of the entire globe girdled by the seven seas was Raghunatha, the Lord of Koshala. This lordship (of entire globe) was nothing great for him, each of whose several hairs contained many a sphere of creation. Salinity of Oceans: There are two mythological legends associated with the salinity of oceans in Holy Scriptures. 1. It is mentioned in Ramacharitmanas Lanka Kanda, that the son of wind – Lord Hanuman said, “My Lord’s might take the fierce fire beneath the sea, had before now dried up the waters of the ocean. But then it was filled up again by the floods of tears shed by your enemies weeping wives, and that is what makes saline”. 2. It is also mentioned in Epics and Puranas that once a bird gave the birth of 3 babies on the sea shore. A large ocean wave came and washed away the baby birds. To teach the lesson to the ocean, the bird started to removing off water of ocean with her beak so as to dry it gradually. The great sage Agastya asked the purpose. The bird told the story how the cruel ocean had washed away her babies. The compassionate sage Agastya said “I will punish the merciless ocean for his mistake” and went away. One day when sage Agastya was performing his worship and muttering of prayers on sea shore, a large ocean wave washed away all his worship material. The Agastya was very angry and remembered what the bird had complained. He absorbed whole Ocean in three Anjali (the hollow formed by joining both hands). The ocean dried up. Then the […]
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 107 (Adi Sankara)) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. One of the great blunders of historians is to declare that Vikramaditya, the originator of the Vikram Era never existed and then to identify Chandragupta II of the Gupta dynasty who bore the title of Vikramaditya, as the Vikramaditya and to assign the date of 400 CE for him. Kota Venkatachelam has discussed this in great detail. First of all, the Guptas belonged to the ‘suryavamsa’ and all of them added the title ‘aditya’ to their names. They ruled Magadha from 328 BCE – 83 BCE with their capital at ‘Pataliputra’. They were contemporaneous with the Greek rulers mentioned earlier. The Greek notices mention Pataliputra, and not Girivraja or Rajagrha, which was the capital of the Maurya-s as has been well known from Buddhist and other records. After Candragupta II, only four others of the Gupta dynasty ruled for 150 years and finally, the empire was broken up by the Huns. The Gupta inscriptions are available and their own inscriptions mention ‘Malava Gana saka’, whose date begins with 725 BCE. But, the historians have identified it as the Vikram saka of 57 BCE and have changed the Gupta saka from 327 BCE to 320 CE, confusing it with Vallabhi saka, which started in 319 CE. The real Vikramaditya of the Vikram saka belongs to the Panwar family, ruled practically the whole of India from Ujjain and originated the Vikram saka in 57 BCE He is the celebrated King whose name is referred to in the work of Kalidasa. According to the vamsavali of Nepal, he conquered Nepal and founded the Vikrama era in 3044 kali (57 BCE). Vedavyas quotes the date of the beginning of the Vikram era as Citra Purnima, on February 23, 57 BCE. However, Figure A shows the star map for this date and it is not full moon day. The full moon occurred on 27th February, but at hasta. This is in reality an adhika masa. The citra purnima occurred on 28th March, 57 BCE. Figure B shows the star map for March 14, 57 BCE. It is sukla pratipada, asvini naksatra and would be the beginning for amanta reckoning and February 28, 57 BCE would be the beginning for purnimanta reckoning. The MalavaGana saka of Western India tradition would begin on September 21, 57 BCE on krsna pratipad, asvini naksatra. Professor Sengupta has conclusively established that the so called Gupta era (which is identical to the Vallabhi era) cannot be identified with Vikrama Saka, based on the analysis of several ‘Gupta Inscriptions’. The former started in 319 CE, where as the starting date for the Vikrama samvat is 57 BCE and has been well chronicled in the dynasty lists from Nepal. One hundred and thirty years after Vikramaditya, another saka was started in 78 CE by Salivahana, who is really a descendant of Vikramaditya. Here is an account of Salivahana: “After the death of Vikramaditya, when a century had passed, the tribes of sakas etc. having known about the decline of Dharma in the country, descended with their hordes. Some have come and invaded through the Himalayan passes, others by fording the Sindhu river, still others by sea. They plundered the Aryaland, looted the treasures and captured women….When things came to this state, was born king Salivahana. He defeated the sakas and Chinese hordes; he fixed the boundaries of the Aryaland..” The Salivahana saka was started in his honor in 78 CE. He cannot be called a saka king, so this era has nothing to do with the saka kala or saka-nrpati kala, which refers to the era of the saka king, Cyrus of 550 BCE. Salivahana saka has been in use continuously for almost two thousand years and also has nothing to do with King Kanishka, who was a turuska king of Kashmir, and ruled after 150 years after Buddha’s nirvana according to Rajatarangini. As already noted, according to the Saptarsi tradition, the seven sages are thought to move through the twenty-seven naksatras along the Ecliptic at the rate of one naksatra for 100 years and to complete one cycle in 2700 years. This forms a convenient cycle for reference and is often chronicled by dropping the century years and giving only the last two digits. The Kali yuga, Vikrama saka, Salivahana saka and the Saptarsi traditional reckoning have all been used in a very large number of stone and copper plate inscriptions, manuscript colophons and other writings. Kielhorn64 has listed a large number of those that were available to him in 1891 CE , including 10 dates based on the Saptarsi tradition, 288 dates based on the Vikrama saka, and 370 dates based on the Salivahana saka. He gives the following rules for conversion: disregarding the hundreds, one must add to the Saptarsi year of a date 25 to find the corresponding year within one of the centuries of the Kaliyuga, 81 to find the corresponding Vikrama saka, and 46 to find the corresponding year in Salivahana saka. Of the chronological list of 288 inscriptions and literary works using Vikrama saka given by Kielhorn65, the earliest is the Bijayagadh stone pillar inscription of Vishnuvardhana of 428 V.s.and the latest, 1877 V.s. and of the nearly 400 Salivahana saka dates, the earliest is 169 S.s , a copper plate of the Western Ganga king Harivarman, and the latest, 1556 S.s. refers to a copper plate of Tirumala Nayaka of Madurai. Out of the 288 Vikrama listings, ten also quote the corresponding […]