Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law | 102
In the following article mathomathis would like to discuss on topic Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law. This is a continuation from the previous article which was Yajnavalkya Smriti | Indian Law | 101. Do read the previous article before continuing here. Among the three topics, Acara, Vyavahara and Prayascitta, discussed in Smriti texts, Vyavahara has relevance even today. Yajnavalkya is the earliest Smrti author, who dealt with the Vyavahara part…
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Oceans in Hindu Mythology by author R.L.S. Sikarwar Arogyadham (J.R.D. Tata Foundation for Reseach in Ayurveda & Yoga Sciences), Deendayal Research Institute, Chitrakoot, Dist. Satna (M.P.)-485 331. Since antiquity the oceans have played a significant role in Hindu religion and its greatness has been profusely illustrated in Holy Scriptures. The ocean has several Hindi and Sanskrit names and synonyms such as Samudra, Sagara, Sindhu, Jaladhi, Neernidhi, Bannidhi, Barees, Udadhi, Payodhi, Nadees, Toynidhi, Kampati, Makaralaya, Varunalaya, Mahodadhi etc. The ten synonyms of the ocean have been given in Ramcharitmanasa. Out of 10 different incarnations (Dasavatara) of Shrihari Vishnu, three avatars such as Matsya Avatar, Kurma Avatar and Varaha Avatar are directly associated with the oceans. In Rama Avatar, the bridge was constructed as per the desire of oceans and helped Lord Rama in various ways. As when the Ravana, the king of Lanka heard the news about the construction of bridge on the ocean by Lord Rama’s army led by engineers Nal & Neel, he astonished and said- “What! Has he really bridged the waves, the billows, the sea, the ocean, the floods, the deep, the main, the brine deep, the home of springs, the Lord of rivers?” The Origin of Oceans: Lord Ram’s ancestor Sagara whose sixty thousand sons dug out the bed of the ocean that is why ocean is called Sagar , the son of Sagara. Therefore, When Lord Rama asked Vibhishana, how we should cross the vast ocean? Vibhishana suggested “for being an older in your family, ocean, My Lord, will think out and suggest a plan. The whole host of bears and monkeys will thus be able to cross the sea without an effort“. The same thing is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana as Vibhishana suggested this immeasurable ocean was dugout by King Sagara and Lord Rama is the descendant of Sagara. Therefore, the ocean must help him. The origin of Seven Oceans and Continents: It is mentioned in Shrimad Bhagwata’s Canto-5, first chapter, the seven oceans and continents were created by the movement of chariot of the king Priyabrata, the son of Swayambhuva Manu. After Swayambhuva Manu’s son was trained in the renounced order (Priyavrata) thus became the master of the universe where he endowed with powerful arms of command together with them pulled the bowstring loudly to defeat all who opposed the dharma. Without interruption for 110 million years there was the rule of the great soul who with the daily increasing amiability, femininity, shyness, laughs, glances and exchanges of love [in his repeated births] with his wife Barhishmati enjoyed a life of pleasure, but confounded and defeated by it he lost his power of discernment. Not appreciating that the sun god, as long as he circumambulated mount Meru, lit up one side of the earth and left the other half in the dark, he who in his worship of the Fortunate One was of a supernatural power then said: ‘I’ll make the night as brilliant as the day’, and to enforce that he followed the orbit of the sun in a chariot, exactly seven times and with the same speed, like he was a second sun. Thus proceeding with the wheels of his chariot that created trenches with their rims, the seven oceans came about which divided the earth (Bhu-mandala) into the seven dvipas (the continents or islands). Known as Jambu (related to Syzygium cumini), Plaksha (related to Ficus virens), Salmali (related to Bombax ceiba), Kusa (related to Desmostchya bipinnata), Kraunca, Saka and Pushkara each of them is twice the size of the preceding ocean in the beyond of which it all around is situated. Those seven oceans consisting of salt water, sugarcane juice, liquor, clarified butter, milk, fluid yogurt and sweet water are of the same size as the islands they as the trenches (of his wheels) one after the other consecutively fully enclose. For each of the dvipas separately the husband of Barhishmati beginning with Jambudvipa, placed one of his faithful sons named Agnidhra, Idhmajihva, Yajnabahu, Hiranyareta, Ghritaprishthha, Medhatithi and Vîtihotra as their king. It is mentioned in Ramcharitmanas that the great king Pratapbhanu and Lord Rama ruled over on all seven continents. By the might of his arm he subdued all the seven continents and let their princes go on payment of tribute. Now Pratapbhanu became the undisputed monarch of the whole the world. Undisputed sovereign of the entire globe girdled by the seven seas was Raghunatha, the Lord of Koshala. This lordship (of entire globe) was nothing great for him, each of whose several hairs contained many a sphere of creation. Salinity of Oceans: There are two mythological legends associated with the salinity of oceans in Holy Scriptures. 1. It is mentioned in Ramacharitmanas Lanka Kanda, that the son of wind – Lord Hanuman said, “My Lord’s might take the fierce fire beneath the sea, had before now dried up the waters of the ocean. But then it was filled up again by the floods of tears shed by your enemies weeping wives, and that is what makes saline”. 2. It is also mentioned in Epics and Puranas that once a bird gave the birth of 3 babies on the sea shore. A large ocean wave came and washed away the baby birds. To teach the lesson to the ocean, the bird started to removing off water of ocean with her beak so as to dry it gradually. The great sage Agastya asked the purpose. The bird told the story how the cruel ocean had washed away her babies. The compassionate sage Agastya said “I will punish the merciless ocean for his mistake” and went away. One day when sage Agastya was performing his worship and muttering of prayers on sea shore, a large ocean wave washed away all his worship material. The Agastya was very angry and remembered what the bird had complained. He absorbed whole Ocean in three Anjali (the hollow formed by joining both hands). The ocean dried up. Then the […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Vedic Epistemology | The Vedic Paradigm for the development of knowledge Para Vidya (Sciences of the material world) and aPara Vidya (Transcendental Sciences) Adhi Daivika represent Cosmic phenomena such as Meteorites, sun spots which cause a disruption in the planet; Adhi Bhautika encompass Terrestrial phenomena such as fire floods, landslides and Adhyatmika, are purely subjective traits such as inertia, lack of faith, insincerity and such , arise from our own negativities. The following article will present on Epistemology of the Dharmik tradition (Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature and validity of knowledge). Darshana: Vision, philosophical doctrine Pramana: Right Knowledge. There are several approaches to accumulating and fine tuning knowledge Pratyaksha: Direct perception, for example ocular proof Anumaana, अनुमान , inference Upamaana: Use of analogy,simile Shabdabodha ( शब्दबोध ): Cognition caused by an utterance based on Authoritative or scriptural testimony e,g, The Bhagavad Gita. Who determines whether a particular scripture is authoritative. Ultimately it is the individual. Arthapaati: (Postulate) Upapatti: Necessity of proof or demonstration Viparyaya: (Wrong knowledge or lack of discrimination) Vikalpa: (Fancy or Verbal delusion) Nidra: (sleep) Smriti: (Memory) The Shad-Dharshanas: The Shad-Dharshanas are six great works (Philosophical systems) that shed light on Indian Ethos, the way the Indic looks at the world, which many mistakenly consider to be based on blind belief. Explaining the Vedas explicitly, they share with the world the wisdom contained therein. The six texts are based on: The Veda, Non-belief and Inner Vision They explain incidents and events that pertain to all the three times of past, present and future. They have taught man how to do away with suffering, restlessness etc., and lead a good life by removing the dirt in him. They explicitly state that the Vedas, the Vedanta and the knower of Vedas are all one and the same. They explain the nature of the mind which is responsible for all Intelligence, intellect and discrimination. These six great Dharshanas (texts) are: Nyaaya, Vaisheshika, Saankhya, Yoga, Puurva-Mimaamsa and Utthara Mimaamsa. Valid knowledge and its means Valid knowledge (prama) is defined as that knowledge which has for its object something that is not already known and is uncontradicted (anadhigata-abaadhita arthavishayaka-jnaanam). The qualification ‘something that is not already known’ is meant to exclude recollection. The word ‘uncontradicted’ excludes illusion or error, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake. The Mimamsakas hold that time is also cognised through the organs of sense. Thus, when an object is seen, the cognition is connected with the moment when it is seen. As a result, when an object is seen continuously for several moments, the cognition at each moment is considered to be different from the cognition of the same object at the previous or next moment. In this view, the cognition at each moment is a new cognition and so the qualification ‘something that is not already known’ applies and the definition is applicable. According to Vedanta, however, a continuous cognition for several moments is one single cognition. The knowledge of a pot, for example, is Consciousness reflected in the mental modification (vritti) in the form of the pot and this is just one throughout the time the same pot continues to be seen. In this view also the definition applies. Objection: According to Advaita Vedanta, all objects such as pot are unreal, being ‘mithya’, and so the knowledge of the pot is contradicted and it cannot be valid knowledge. Answer: It is only after the realization of Brahman that the pot is contradicted. In the above definition, ‘uncontradicted’ means ‘not contradicted during the transmigratory state’. The following is adapted from Dattapeetham What is Nirvachana (definition)? For properly understanding a topic, we should be conversant with the correct definitions of the words we useIt was in this context that the question ‘what is Nirvachana?’ had come up. Nir-Vachana means, to elucidate appropriately and precisely. It means ‘to explain with the help of unambiguous terms what has to be explained’. In the present context of understanding Vedanta, we were trying to understand the phenomenon of the manifest world and the Knowledge of the Self. Understanding itself is Jnana (knowledge). Jnana: Jnana is of two types. 1. Yathaartha Jnana and 2. Ayathaartha Jnana. Yathaartha Janna means understanding an object as that of the literal object only. For example, in the example of rope snake, to understand a rope to be a rope is Yathaartha Janna. Wrongly understanding an object (to be something else) is Ayathaartha Janna. This is also called Asatya Jnana (false knowledge). In the analogy of rope and snake, assuming a piece of rope to be a snake is Ayathaartha Janna. Objection: When simple terms such as Satya Jnana and Asatya Jnana are available, why should difficult words (Yathaartha Jnana and Ayathaartha Jnana) be used? Reply: It is true that they are difficult terms. But they possess more clarity. There are two words Yatha + Artha (in the word Yathaartha). ‘To perceive an object as that very object’ is the meaning of these words. That is, to perceive a rope as rope is Yathaartha Jnana. Using the word Yathaartha, rather than Satya conveys this meaning better. Because the term is difficult, the men of wisdom have used another simpler word ‘Pramaa’ in place of Yathaartha. Pramaa means Yathaartha Jnana. Pramaa (True knowledge, accuracy of perception). Pramaa is of two types. 1. Smriti (remembrance) and 2. Anubhava (experience). Smriti is recollection of what has been experienced in the past. Anubhava is perceiving in the present. Anubhava comes from Pramanas (testimonies) such as Pratyaksha (direct perception). When the knowledge thus obtained with the help of Pramanas remains in the Antahkarana (inner instruments) as Samskara (latent impression) and after some time, due to some reason gets recollected, it becomes ‘Smriti). Therefore, it can be said with […]
Nasadiya Sukta is one of the renowned suktha in RigVeda:- 129th suukta of the 10th mandala of the Rigveda. Mathomathis would like to present on the Sukta. nāsad āsīn no sad āsīt tadānīṁ nāsīd rajo no vyomā paro yat | kim āvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmann ambhaḥ kim āsīd gahanaṁ gabhīram || 1 || Then even nothingness was not, nor existence, There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping Was there then cosmic water, in depths unfathomed? na mṛtyur āsīd amṛtaṁ na tarhi na rātryā ahna āsīt praketaḥ | ānīd avātaṁ svadhayā tad ekaṁ tasmād dhānyan na paraḥ kiṁ canāsa || 2 || Then there was neither death nor immortality Nor was there then the torch of night and day. The One breathed windlessly and self-sustaining. There was that One then, and there was no other. tama āsīt tamasā gūl̥ham agre ‘praketaṁ salilaṁ sarvam ā idam | tucchyenābhv apihitaṁ yad āsīt tapasas tan mahinājāyataikam || 3 || At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness. All this was only unillumined water. That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, arose at last, born of the power of heat. kāmas tad agre sam avartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṁ yad āsīt | sato bandhum asati nir avindan hṛdi pratīṣyā kavayo manīṣā || 4 || In the beginning desire descended on it. That was the primal seed, born of the mind. The sages who have searched their hearts with wisdom know that which is kin to that which is not. tiraścīno vitato raśmir eṣām adhaḥ svid āsīd upari svid āsīt | retodhā āsan mahimāna āsan svadhā avastāt prayatiḥ parastāt || 5 || And they have stretched their cord across the void, and know what was above, and what below. Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces. Below was strength, and over it was impulse. ko addhā veda ka iha pra vocat kuta ājātā kuta iyaṁ visṛṣṭiḥ | arvāg devā asya visarjanenāthā ko veda yata ābab || 6 || But, after all, who knows, and who can say Whence it all came, and how creation happened? The gods themselves are later than creation, so who knows truly whence it has arisen? iyaṁ visṛṣṭir yata ābabhūva yadi vā dadhe yadi vā na | yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman so aṅga veda yadi vā na veda || 7 || Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows – or maybe even he does not know.
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1: Jaati tryvidhyam Yugabhedaad Vimaanaanaam | “Three types according to changing Yugas.” Bodhaananda Vritti: The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types. In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square, fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practice mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them; That is: Animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; Mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; Garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; Laghimaa is becoming weightless; Praaptih is securing any desired thing; Praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; Eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and Vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant. The age of Krita yuga = 1.728.000 years, Threthaa yuga–1.296.000 years, Dwaapara yuga–864.000 years and Kaliyuga–432.000 years. Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas. Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. In Tretaa Yuga: Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men’s minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer. Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind. Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshiping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories. The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion. Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favoring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, “Till now you have been known as “Munis” or ascetics. Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as “Rishis” or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practicing celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favor, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises.” Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere. It is said in Vimaana Chandrika, “I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the 3 yugas as of 3 different types.” Vyomayaana Tantra” also says: “By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type.” Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers. In “Yantra Kalpa” also: “Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka.” The same is expressed in “Kheta yaana pradeepika,” and also “Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa.” Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2: “Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena” | “Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 Varieties.” Bodhaananda Vritti: In the previous Sutra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas. […]
Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained. Before proceeding with the following article, complete the previous article The following article provides/gives a diagrammatic view of the hierarchy that was discussed in our previous articles. Readers can right click on the image and select the option “Open image in new tab” for better readability.