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Mathomathis would like to present an article on Vastu for house adopted from the website: Freevastushastra.com Vastu Shastra a refined combination of ancient Hindu traditions developed as an art, analyzed as a science, and interpreted astrologically can lead the way into healthy living. There is a universal call for world peace hence the smallest unit of the society like the family should raise their offspring in an environment that knows the meaning of peace. Vastu Shastra:- it teaches us how to recognize a land suitable as a vastu for a house that will receive magnetic energy from elemental forces: the Sun, the Earth, the Sky, the Air, and the Water. Discover how ancient principles and practices interpret the value of land in terms of shapes and other geographical characteristics. How even the debris and rubbish unearthed can play an important part on the quality of the land we build our house on. Understand how and where we should position ourselves in order to receive the sun’s unseen benefits. We all wish to live a life as peacefully and comfortably as we can and a simple knowledge of the positive elemental influences can help us achieve what we all hope for. Learn the importance of laying out your house in a manner that will ensure a harmonious balance between you and nature. The objective is to become open to positive elemental influences and at the same time become protected from unseen malevolence. Positive vibrations can bring happiness through excellence in health and business dealings while the negative vibrations can bring grief and losses. There is a purpose in each location and positioning. What we do as dwellers in a house designed as per vastu shastra can be aptly guided by the way our rooms are positioned. Vastu Shastra is a vast field and it may take more than this ebook to acquire specialization. Some basic knowledge on what are favorable and unfavorable will help us develop our own instincts to recognize a suitable land, a correct alignment, and an ideal location. Understanding the scientific reasons will help us appreciate the logic of ancient traditions which may very well help us to achieve what has been elusive for so long: happiness, contentment, and inner peace. THE PRINCIPLES OF VASTU SHASTRA India in the richness of its culture and tradition has some helpful tips to share with us on how we can design our homes or any kind of building for that matter. It lies in the basic principle that for man to get the maximum benefits of life’s energy giving sources, he must keep his bodily placement in balance with nature. The guiding principles are embodied in the ancient tradition known as Vastu Shastra. Roughly translated Vastu means land to live on and Shastra has reference to harmony and balance of man with nature. Vastu Shastra teaches us on how we can lay out our house design so that we as human beings can get the maximum benefits of the natural forces given-off by nature. Basically, this system deals with the five elements in Indian Mythology namely, air, water, earth, fire, and sky which are believed to be sources of natural power. These five elements in ancient Vedic beliefs are said to be capable of giving off energy. How we, as human beings absorb this energy rely on where we are positioned. Therefore a good enough knowledge and understanding about the art or science of vastu shastra helps us appreciate its traditional values. Before we get into details about vastu shastra, let us first have a clearer concept about the five elements and its significance to human life. Ancient Vedic tradition believes that the Earth was formed 460 million years ago and it started out from being just a big fiery ball. Vedic theory has it that, earth possessed magnetic forces that caused a surface to be formed out of the rocks that melted through the passing of time. As magnets have it, there is the existence of two poles: the North Pole and the South Pole. Then there came the creation of space represented by the sky, the air inherent in space, or vacuum, the earth which is the solid surface, the water which comprises ¾ of the earth’s surface and the fire which is natural to the sun. Sky something that denotes space, a vacuum endless and infinite yet holds an unimaginable power that can reach our earthly existence. Air the gasses biologically needed by all living things on earth whether for subsistence or for ecological balance. Water believed to be rainfall from the skies which filled up the gaps and low lying areas of the Earth. Earth that which was formed out of the molten rocks and which attracts all other elements because of its great magnetic force. Sun the bearer of fire and the main source of life on earth. It plays an important part in vastu shastra since it is worshipped as the personification of God being the potential source of creation. If we are to really think about it, life without the sun is like having the main switch turned-off. The invisible powers emanating from these elements can come in all directions. It is a must therefore to know where we can position our property, our house as well as our physical beings in order to receive the natural life forces.. POSITION BENEFITS North Happiness and Calm East Abundance of wealth South Shortage of female members or tragedies West Stomach and sexual troubles to occur among male members North West Unhealthy rivalry that can cause trouble South West Brings conflict with the son South East Death will be dreaded Center of the House Suffer from heavy monetary losses Vastu Shastra adapts its principles by revolving its concept in the huge power of the Sun to reach man’s existence on earth. A mere fraction of the Sun’s heat is enough to sustain the life and continuous existence of living things in a place as distant as […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Indic Savants In The Computational Sciences From Antiquity 1 A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar 2 Acyuta Pisarati (c. 1550 CE-1621 CE) 3 Apastambha, author of Sulva Sutra, circa 2000 BCE 4 Aryabhata (476 CE – 550 CE.) 5 Aryabhata Ia (author of Aryabhata Siddhanta) 6 Aryabhata lb (author of Aryabhattiyum of Kusumapura) Born in Asmaka,, A1b = or not=A1a 7 Aryabhata II 8 Bakshali Manuscript 9 Baudhayana (fl. 700 B.C.E.) 10 Bhaskara I 11 Bhadrabahu 12 Bhartrihari, considered to be the father of semantics 13 Bhaskara (1114-c. 1185) 14 Bhaskara 1(629 CE of Vallabhi country) 15 Bhaskara II (Bhaskaracharya son of Maheshwara) 16 Bhattotpala of Kashmir (966 CE) 17 Bhutivesnu son of Devaraja, circa 14th century CE? 18 Bose 19 Brahmadeva 20 Brahmadeva son of Chandrabuddha 1092 ce 21 Brahmagupta (c. 598-c. 670) , son of Jisnugupta 22 Brihaddeshi 23 Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao 24 Cangadeva (fl. 1205) 25 Chandraprajnapati, ? 5”’ century BCE 26 Chandrasekhara Simha or Chandrasekhar Samanta (are they the same — yes)) 1835 CE 27 D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri 28 Damodara, son of Parameswara and guru of Nilakantha Somasutvan as well 29 Dasaballa (son of Vairochana) 1055 CE 30 Deva (Deva Acharya) 31 Gaargeya 32 Ganesha Daivajna I (1505 CE son of Lakshmi and Kesava)) 33 Ganesha Daivajnya II (great grandson of Ganesha Daivajnya 1(1600 CE) 34 Gangadhara 35 Gangesha Upadhyaya 36 Ghatigopa 37 Govinda Bhatta 38 Govindaswami (c. 800-850) 39 Halayudha (fl. 975) 40 Haridatta (circa 850 CE) 41 Harish-Chandra 42 Hemachandra Suri (b. 1089) 43 Hemcha n dra 44 Jaganath Pandit (fl. 1700) 45 Jagannatha Samrat 46 Jayadeva (fl. 1000) 47 Jayant Narlikar 48 Jyesthadeva of KERALA (circa 1500 CE?) 49 Kamalakara (1616) alt.1610 CE, son of narasimha (belongs to Daivjnya 50 Katyayana , Author of Sulva Sutras 51 Kesava Daivajna 52 Kodandarama (1807-1893) of the Telugu country alternate (1854CE ) son 53 Krishna Daivajna 54 Krisnadesa 55 Kumararajiva 56 Lagadha 57 Lakshmidasa , son of Vachaspati Misra 58 Lakshmidasa Daivajna 59 Lalla son of Bhatta Trivikrama 60 Latadeva , pupil of Aryabhata lb 61 Lokavibhaga (Jaina text) 62 Madhava (son of Virupaksha of the Telugu country) 63 Madhava of Sangramagama in Kerala (1340 to 1425 CE 64 Mahadeva (son of Bandhuka) 65 Mahadeva son of parasurama, 66 Maharajah Sawai Jai Singh 67 Mahavira (Mahaviracharya) (fl. 850) 68 Mahavira , founder of Jainism, author of Surya prajnapati 69 Mahavira of the Digambara sect 70 Mahendra Sun (1349 CE) 71 Mahendra Sun, pupil of Madana Sun , (1370 CE) 72 Malayagiri, Jam Monk from Gujarat 73 Malikarjuna Sun , 1178 CE, name suggest Telugu country 74 Manava 75 Manjula 76 Manjula (fl. 930) 77 Mathukumalli V. Subbarao 78 Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri 79 Munishvara 80 Nagesh Daivajnya (son of Shiva Daivajnya) (1619 CE) 81 Narasimha Daivajna (son of Krishna Daivajnya) 1586 CE 82 Narayana Pandit (fl. 1350) 83 Narayana (c. 1500-1575) 84 Narendra Karmarkar 85 Navin M. Singhi 86 Nilakantha Somayaji or Nilakantha Somasutvan (1444 CE to 1550 CE) 87 Nisanku – son of Venkataknishna Sastri (source, sourcebook KVS) 88 Padmanabha son of Narmada (same as Parameswara?) 89 Panduranga swami 90 Panini 91 Paramesvara (1360-1455 CE) alt.1380 — 1460 CE,a Namputiri of Vataserri in Kerala 92 Patodi 93 Pillai 94 Pingala 95 Prabhakara (pupil of Aryabhata I, 525 CE? 96 Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis 97 Prashastidhara (fl. 958) 98 Pruthudakaswami (fl. 850) 99 Putumana Somayaji (c. 1660-1740) 100 Raghunath Raj 101 Raj Chandra Bose 102 Rajagopal 103 Rama Daivajnya , sonn of Madhusudhana Daivajnya 104 Ramanujam 105 Ranganatha son of Narasimha Daivajnya (1643 CE) . commentary on Surya Siddhanta 106 Referred to as son of Padmanabha (1417 CE) are they one and the same 107 S. N. Roy 108 S. S. Shrikhande 109 Saamanta Chandrasekhar Simha (see also Chandrasekhar Sinha) 110 Sankara Variyar (1500 — 1600 CE) pupil of Jyeshtadeva 111 Sankara Varman (fl. 1800) 112 Sarvadaman Chowla 113 Satyendra Nath Bose 114 Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar 115 Somaswara circa 11 century CE 116 Sridhara (fl. 900) 117 Sridharacharya 118 Srinivasa Ramanujan 119 Sripati (son of Nagadeva, 999 CE) 120 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 121 Suryadeva Yajwan (1191 CE of Gangaikonda Cholapuram in Tamilnadu) 122 The Daivajna Family — The Bernoullis of India 123 Trikkantiyur 124 Umaswati (fl. 150 B.C.E.) 125 Varahamihira (c. 505-c. 558) 126 Varahamihira (son of Adityadasa) 127 Venkatesh Ketkar 128 Vijayanandi 129 Vijay Kumar Patodi 130 Virasena 131 Virasena Acharya 132 Virupaksha Suri of the Telugu country 133 Vishnu Daivajnya (son of Divakara Daivajnya) same as Visvanatha? 134 Visvanatha Daivajna (son of Divakara Daivajna) 1578 CE 135 Yajnavalkya 136 Yallaiya (1482 CE of Skandasomeswara of the Telugu country) 137 Yaska 138 Yatavrisham Acharya 139 Yativrsabha 140 Yavanesvara
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Sushruta Samhita | Medical treatment of inflamed ulcers based on the book Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Chikitsasthana by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna | 1911 | 123,229 words. The article was adopted from the website: https://www.wisdomlib.org/, a detailed explanation is available on the website. Metrical Texts:— Ashmari (urinary calculus, etc) is a dangerous disease and is as fatal as death itself. A case of recent origin (acute) proves amenable to medicines, while an enlarged or chronic one requires surgical operations. The remedial measures, in the order of anointing, etc., should be employed in the first or incipient stage of the disease, whereby the entire defects with their causes (i.e., roots of the disease) would be radically cured. Treatment of Vataja Ashmari:— Clarified butter cooked with a decoction of Pashanabheda, Vasuka, Vashira, Ashmantaka, Shatavari, Shvadamstra, Vrihati, Kantakarika, Kapotavamka, Artagala, Kakubha, Ushira, Kubjaka, Vrikshadani, Bhalluka, Varuna, Shaka-phala, barley, Kulattha, Kola and Kataka fruits and with the Kalka of the drugs constituting the group of Ushakadi, speedily brings about the disintergration of Ashmari (urinary calculi, etc.) due to the action of the deranged Vayu. Milk, Yavagu (gruel), a decoction, soup, or an alkali, properly prepared with the above Vayu-subduing drugs should also be administered as food and drink in the above cases. Treatment of Pittaja Ashmari:— Similarly a medicated clarified butter cooked with the decoction of Kusha, Kasha, Shara, Gundra, Itkata, Morata, Ashmabhid, Shatavari, Vidari, Varahi, Shali-mula, Trikantaka, Bhalluka, Patala, Patha, Pattura, Kuruntika, Punarnava, Shirisha, with the paste (Kalka) consisting of Shilajatu, Madhuka (flower) and the seeds of Indivara, Trapusha and Ervaruka, would speedily bring about the disintegration of Pittaja Ashmari (calculi, etc.). An alkali, Yavagu (gruel), soup, a decoction, or milk, properly prepared with the above Pitta-subduing drugs, should also be prescribed as food and drink in these cases. Treatment of Kaphaja Ashmari:— The use of medicated clarified butter prepared from the milk of a she-goat† and cooked with the paste (Kalka) of the drugs constituting the Varunadi group, Guggulu, Ela, Harenu, Kushtha, the Bhadradi group, Marica, Citraka, Surahva and the Ushakadi group, leads to the speedy disintegration and expulsion of the Ashmari (stone, etc.) due to the action of the deranged Kapha. So also the use of an alkali, Yavagu (gruel), soup, milk, or a decoction, properly prepared with the above Kapha-subduing drugs, is recommended as food and drink in such cases. A potion consisting of the powdered fruit of the Pichuka, Amkola, Kataka, Shaka and Indivara mixed with treacle and water proves beneficial in cases of Gravel (Sarkara). The bones of the Krauncha, camel and ass, as well as the drugs known as Shvadamshtra, Talamuli, Ajamoda, Kadamba- roots and Nagara pounded together and administered through the vehicle of wine (Sura) or hot water, leads to the disintegration of Sharkara (gravel). The milk of an ewe mixed with powdered Trikantaka- seeds and honey should be used for seven days for the disintegration and separation of an Ashmari. Alkaline Treatments:— An alkali should be prepared from the ashes of the drugs used in the preparation of the aforesaid medicated clarified butters, by dissolving and filtering them in ewe’s urine The alkali should then be slowly boiled with an alkali similarly prepared from the dung of domestic animals, with the powders of Trikatu and the drugs of the Ushakadi group thrown into them as an after-throw. It proves curative in cases of stone, Gulma, and gravel. Alkalies from burnt bark of sesamum, Apamarga, plantain, Palasha and barley taken with the urine of an ewe destroy the gravel (Sharkara). As an alternative, the alkalies of Patala and Karavira should be used in the preceding manner. Two Tola (Aksha) weights of the pastes of Shvadamstra, Yashti-madhu and Brahmi (mixed with ewe’s urine) should be given to the patient; or the expressed juice of the Edaka, Shobhanjana and Markava (with the said urine) should be given, or a potion consisting of the pasted roots of the Kapotavamka with Kanjika, or Sura, etc., should be administered. Milk boiled with the aforesaid drug (Kapotavamka) should be taken by a patient in case there is pain (in urinating). Milk boiled with Triphala or Varshabhu should be administered as a drink and a decoction of the drugs of the Vira-taradi group should be employed in all these cases. A physician should have recourse to the following measures (surgical operations) in cases where the above-mentioned decoctions, medicated milk, alkalies, clarified butter and Uttara-vasti (urethral syringe) of the aforesaid drugs, etc., would prove ineffective. Surgical operations in these cases do not prove successful even in the hands of a skilful and experienced surgeon; so a surgical (Lithotomic) operation should be considered a remedy that has little to recommend itself. The death of the patient is almost certain without a surgical operation and the result to be derived from it is also uncertain. Hence a skilled surgeon should perform such operations only with the permission of the king. Modes of Surgical Operations:— The patient should be soothed (Snigdha) by the application of oleaginous substances, his system should be cleansed with emetics and purgatives and be slightly reduced thereby; he should then be fomented after being anointed with oily unguents; and be made to pertake of a meal. Prayers, offerings and prophylactic charms should be offered and the instruments and surgical accessories required in the case should be arranged in the order laid down in the Agropaharaniya chapter of the present work (Sutra-sthana, ch. V.). The surgeon should use his best endeavors to encourage the patient and infuse hope and confidence in the patient’s mind. A person of strong physique and unagitated mind should be first made to sit on a level board or table as high as the knee-joint. The patient should then be made to lie on his back on the table placing the upper part of his body in the attendant’s lap, with his waist resting on an elevated cloth cushion. Then the elbows and knee-joints (of the patient) should be contracted and […]
Mathomathis would like to continue on Upanishads and Quantum Philosophy Compared , 102. Readers can find the previous article by navigating to the link Upanishads and Quantum Philosophy Compared | 101 Chandogya Upanishad refers to the origin of world from akasha, the space-time continuum. Thus the Upanishad says: Where from do all these worlds come? They came from akasha and into akasha they return. akasha is indeed their beginning and akasha is the final end. Taittiriya Upanishad refers to akasha or space as the first evolute. The field of modern science can be compared to this akasha . The Upanishads speaks of apah, prana and akasha in decreasing order of subtlety. Here akasha is said to have come from prana. These three are active and things are produced from them and into them they return. This is the similar to the concept of the particles appearing from nowhere which again is the field. Thus apah, prana and akasha can together be compared to the field of the quantum thinkers. Manifestation of the world begins with its first step, the appearance of the space time continuum. Consciousness draws the picture of the manifested world in the canvas of space-time continuum. An object is only a pattern in the field of consciousness. The field is enveloped by space time, the first fictitious creation of the consciousness force. In the state of pralaya the space-time is engulfed into the Absolute consciousness. Thus says the lore of India: From atman-Brahman in the beginning came akahsa. From akasha came air, from air the fire, from fire the water. From water came solid earth. From earth came living plants. From plants food and seed; and from seed and food came a living being, man. This is akin to quantum inter-connectedness which Wheeler refers to as quantum foam. Thus writes John Gribbin: Quantum fluctuations in the geometry of space are completely negligible at the scale of atoms, or even elementary particles, but at this very fundamental level space itself can be thought of as a foam of quantum fluctuations – John Wheeler, who developed this idea, makes the comparison between an ocean that seems flat to an aviator flying high above it, but that seems anything but to the occupants of a lifeboat tossing about it on its stormy, ever-changing surface. Sir James Jeans, the British psychologist points to the relative nature of space and time which according to him do not have separate existence in nature. He opines, …nature knows as nothing of space and time separately, being concerned only with the four dimensional continuum in which space and time are inseparably welded together into the product we may designate as “space-time.” Our human spectacles divide this into space and time, and introduce a spurious differentiation between them; just as an astigmatic pair of spectacles divides the field of vision of a normal man into horizontal and vertical, and introduces a spurious differentiation between these directions. With astigmatic spectacles on, we incline our head and see the scene in front of us rearrange itself. Yet we know that nothing spectacles is subjective. Einstein’s world view which he formulated before his death is worth quoting. “Space has devoured ether and time; it seems to be on the point of swallowing up also the field and the corpuscles, so that it alone remains as the vehicle of reality”. Scientists studying space and field have ruled out the pluralistic picture of the universe since they accept the space or field as a single continuous entity which is the basis of the pluralistic manifestation of the world. The new generation quantum thinkers realized the role of space in the creation and dissolution of particles. Particles come from and vanish into space. Space, time, and motion (matter) are the three principles in the world of ordinary experience. Like space matter also has a relative appearance, both scientists as well as upanishadic seers opine. The study of the microscopic world by the quantum physicists has proved the bizarre nature of matter. Determinacy and causality upheld by the classical physics gave way to the theories of indeterminacy and complementarity. Objective reality became an illusion or something subjective. The behavior of an atom or sub-atomic particle was found to be ghost-like. Marcus Chown’s humorous illustration of the ‘red Ferrari’ cited earlier in this work brings out the process of tunneling by particles. Being a wave and a particle, an atom is said to be present everywhere and would materialize when the consciousness desires to observe it. The ‘double slit experiment’ of Young is an excellent demonstration of uncertainty and tunneling of particles. The waves are in superposition. This is no theoretical fantasy. Experiments describe it possible to observe the presence of an atom at two places simultaneously just like a fairy tale character appearing simultaneously at many places. But this was not a matter of fancy to the ancient Seers according to whom ‘it’ moves, ‘it’ moves not, ‘it’ is far, ‘it’ is near, ‘it’ is within all this, and ‘it’ is outside of all this. (Isho upanishad). Individual consciousness is identical with the Universal or Absolute consciousness. The ultimate consciousness in its becoming decohered binds itself with ignorance or illusion and chooses for it one out of the innumerable possibilities. It thus becomes a part of the world of imperfection and limitation and forgets the unity it is the part of. While scientists call this collapse of consciousness, a Seer like Sri. Aurobindo calls it the involution of consciousness. Universal Consciousness is thus everywhere, become any thing with its bizarre nature. Aitareya Upanishad describes atman as got entangled in all cosmic phenomena. (He) whereby one sees, or whereby one hears, or whereby one smells odours, or whereby one articulates speech, or whereby one discriminates the sweet and the unsweet; that which is heart(hrdaya) and mind (manas) – that is consciousness (samjnana) perception (ajnana), discrimination (vijnana), intelligence (prajnana), wisdom (medha), insight (drishti), steadfastness (dhrti), thought (mati), thoughtfulness (manisha), impulse (juti), memory (smriti), conception (samkalpa), purpose […]
Mathomathis will discuss about, one of the interesting topic from Sushruta Samhita, called : “Fracture Management in Traditional Indian Medicine”, by the authors Dr. Hemant D. Toshikhane, M.S.(Ayu) and Dr. H.J. Sangeeta, M.D. (Ayu). In traditional Ayurveda practice, the fracture of bones and their treatment was first mentioned in SUSHRUTA SAMHITA – chikitsa sthana from the view of surgical management. Among the different types of fractures, ancient Indian surgeons gave importance to the fractures of thigh, spines, shafts of long bones, and the pelvic region. The principles laid down by Sushruta are so relevant that they are even practiced by toady’s orthopedic surgeons. Those four basic principles are: Among the management of fractures is the Kushabandha (wooden splint) which is practiced as an application of POP cast or slab (or squint bandage, as are used at present). In same way, the chakrayoga that is explained in Astanga Hridaya is in vogue in the form of the traction method. Here a comparison of ancient techniques is made with the modified techniques practiced in the present era. In traditional Indian medicine there is a explanation of about 6 types of dislocations, and 12 types of fractures. The types of dislocations are: Utpista – Fracture dislocation; Vislista – Dislocations of joints due to ligamental tears; Vivartita – Anterior-posterior dislocation of the head of the humerus; Avakshipta – Downward displacement of the head of the humerus; Atikshipta – Marked displacement of any articulation surface; Tiryakshipta – Oblique dislocation in one of the articulating bones. The types of Fractures are: Karkataka – Depressed fracture. Ashwakarana – Complete oblique fracture. Churnitam – Comminuted fracture Pichhitam – Fracture by compression. Asthichallita – Sub periosteal avulsion. Kandabhagna- Complete spiral fracture. Majjanugatam- Impacted fracture. Atipatitam – Complete compound fracture. Vakra – Green stick fracture. Chinnam – Incomplete fracture. Patitam – Comminuted fracture flat bones. Sputita – Fissured fracture. Traditional Indian medicine has mentioned different medicines, formulations, rejuvenators, and dietary restrictions for the rapid and complete healing of fractures. The few orthopaedic techniques are mentioned below: KUSHA BANDHANA (Application of P.O.P.cast or splint) : Kusha bandhana is a technique that ancient Indian surgeons practiced for fracture immobilization. In this technique they have applied the barks certain plants like bamboo, banyan, and pipal which were referenced regarding external applications of pastes of bamboo pith, latex of banyan, and pipal like trees. This procedure was practiced based on the season, time, constitution, and strength, of an individual. While manipulating the broken bones, Unnamana (elevation of depressed fragment) and Vinamana (Depression of elevated fragment) were followed by traction and retention. In the winter season, the bandage should be changed once per week. In the rainy season, the bandage is to be changed once per five days. In the summer, the bandage has to be changed once per three days. The bandage should be in the form of SAMABANDHA (neither too tight nor too loose). ASTHIPOORANA (Bone Grafting): As per the classic version, in compound fractures, multiple fractures, and irregular fractures where the fractured part is totally separated or missed in those conditions, one has to fill the missing part by Sudha varga dravyas (materials possessing mineral calcium). The paste prepared from the combination of Sudhavarga dravya, decoction of Rubia cordifolia, and latex of the banyan tree was used as a graft material. After the filing up the area, medicated oils are applied for proper acceptance and healing of the bone. CHAKRAYOGA (Skeletal Traction): In long bone fractures, the fractures of the shaft, hairline fractures, oblique fractures, and in compound open fractures, there is the reference of using of Chakrayoga. As per the reference, in dislocation of joints, skin traction was practiced. KAPATASHAYANA (Fracture Bed) VIDHI: This method of immobilization is used in the fracture or dislocation of the thigh, hips, ankle, shoulder, spine, spinal column, bones of thorax, and axillary regions. In this method, the patient was laid on a multi holed bed where the affected part is immobilized using five wooden pegs. The method of preparing and fixing of an artificial limb is also mentioned in the ancient traditional medicine of India. These are used in practice by changing the type of and quality of a material in a sophisticated manner. In ancient days artificial limbs were prepared with bark of bamboo, by the mixture of wax, mud, thin bamboo bark, and grass. In modern times, however, artificial limbs are prepared with solid and smooth woods like teak, rosewood, and with adhesive cement. In ancient days deformities like scoliosis or kyphosis in spinal column, a jacket or a belt that is made up of leather material was used to fix the problem. In the modern era the same type and structured belt is also used but it is made up of leather-chromium-ion jacket. Now, let us focus on, yet another topic of | The medical treatments of fractures and dislocations. (The following article is available more under https://www.wisdomlib.org/) A fracture or dislocation (Bhagna) occurring in a person of a Vatika temperament, or of intemperate habits, or in one who is sparing in his diet, or is affected with such supervening disorders (as fever, tympanites, suppression of the stool and urine, etc.) is hard to cure. A fracture-patient must forego the use of salt, acid, pungent and alkaline substances and must live a life of strictest continence, avoid exposure to the sun and forego physical exercises and parchifying (devoid of oleaginous) articles of food. A diet consisting of boiled rice, meat-soup, milk, clarified butter, soup of Satina pulse and all other nutritive and constructive food and drink, should be discriminately given to a fracture-patient. The barks of Udumbara, Madhuka, Ashvattka, Palasha, Kakubha, Bamboo, Vata or Sala trees should be used as splints (Kusha). Manjishtha, Madhuka, red sandal wood and Sali- rice mixed with Shata-Dhauta clarified butter (i.e., clarified butter washed one hundred times in succession) should be used for plastering the fracture. Bandage:— Fractures should be (dressed and) bandaged once a week in cold weather, on every fifth day in temperate weather (i.e., […]