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Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would deal mainly with the Glossary A Abda – Year (as in Yugabda 5110 (2009) Abhijit Nakshatra: Abhijit Nakshatra is called the intercalary(IC) Nakshatra as it appear as a small (smaller duration as compared to normal duration of Nakshatra 13d 20m) Nakshatra between Uttarashadha and Sravana. The duration of Uttarashadha is divided into four parts and the first three paadas are assigned to Uttarashadha, which makes the duration of Uttarashadha to be 10deg with each paada to be 2d 30m. The remaining one paada of Uttarashadha is assigned to Abhijit, the intercalary Nakshatra. Similarly beginning 1/15th part of Sravana is given to Abhijit, making its total length to be 253.33 min, i.e., 4d 13m 20s. The remaining 14/15th part of Sravana is assigned to the four padas of Sravana, making the total duration of Sravana to be 12d 26m 40s Acharya, आचायर् – a spiritual guide or teacher. Adharma, अधमर् – absence of righteousness, disorder, evil, immorality Adhikamaasa or intercalary month – Leap month or intercalary month introduced to account for the lack of synchronization between a lunar period and a solar period, i.e., the solar period (or year) is not an exact multiple of a lunar month. Literally means additional month. An intercalation takes place when 2 lunar months begin in the same solar month, ,the former of the 2 is called the intercalary month or adhikamaasa Adi – first, primordial as in Adi Sankara Aditi – In Hinduism, Aditi (Sanskrit – limitless) is a goddess of the sky, consciousness, the past, the future and fertility. She is an ancient goddess, mother of Agni and the Adityas with Kashyapa. She is associated with cows, a very holy animal in Vedic beliefs. Aditi is the daughter of Daksha and Veerni. She gave birth to the Devas who were beautiful, intelligent and pious to the Almighty. Although the goddess Aditi is mentioned nearly eighty times in the rig – veda, it is difficult to get a clear picture of her nature. She is usually mentioned along with other gods and goddesses, there is no one hymn addressed exclusively to her, and unlike many other vedic deities, she is not obviously related to some natural phenomenon. compared to Usha and Prithvi, her character seems ill defined. Perhaps the most outstanding attribute of Aditi is her motherhood. She is preeminently the mother of the Adityas, a group of 7 or 8 gods which include Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Daksha and Ansa. (2.27.1) Aditi is also said to be the mother of the great god Indra, the mother of kings (2.27), and the mother of gods (1.113.19). Unlike Prithvi, however, whose motherhood is also central to her nature, Aditi does not have a male consort in the Rig-veda. as a mothering presence, Aditi is often asked to guard the one who petitions her (1.106.7 ; 8.18.6) or to provide him or her with wealth, safety, and abundance (10.100; 1.94.15). Aditya – In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kashyapa. In the Rigveda, they are seven deities of the heavens, chief of these being Varuna, followed by Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Daksha, and Ansa, the seventh Aditya was probably the Sun, Surya or Savitar. As a class of gods, the Rigvedic Adityas were distinct from the Visvedevas. In the Yajurveda (Taittiriya Samhita), their number is given as eight. In the Brahmanas, their number is expanded to twelve, corresponding to the twelve months:Ansa ,Aryaman, Bhaga ,Daksha ,Dhatri, Indra, Mitra, Ravi, Savitar, Surya , Varuna, Yama Aditya in the (Chāndogya-Upanishad) is also a name of Vishnu, in his Vamana (dwarf) Avatar. Adhyasa – Used to refer to the ‘mistake’ that we make when we ‘superimpose’ a false appearance upon the reality or mix up the real and the unreal. Adrishta – opposite of drishta or Unseen,a metaphor for the consequences of past actions,which may be unanticipated Advaita – Not two (dvaita) Ahimsa – Abstention from injury to all life forms AmAvasya, अमावस्य़ -new moon Analemma – At noon in a perfect world, the sun would always be positioned 93 million miles directly over the equator, and the Earth, an unblemished sphere, would rotate evenly on a precisely vertical axis. The seasons would never change. Every day would last as long as every other. And we’d never have the equinoxes and solstices that mark the four quarters of the year. As it happens, however, the Earth’s axis is tilted and, according to Ruth Freitag, a senior science specialist at the Library of Congress, the “slightly eccentric ellipse” of the Earth’s orbit around the sun led astronomers to come up with a consistent way to determine mean time, the time by which we all set our clocks. “The natural system is full of variables, and that’s without even considering the irregularities of the Earth’s rotation, which came to light in the late 19th century,” says Freitag. Thus we have the analemma, the somewhat mysterious looking figure-eight diagram on many globes and maps. The analemma charts where and when the sun will appear directly overhead in the “torrid zone,” between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The curves of the analemma also mark the solstices and equinoxes. The winter solstice, occurring when the sun is at its southernmost position in the torrid zone, is shown on the most extreme point of an analemma’s lower arc. In the days before the radio, the analemma was also useful for correcting clocks,” says author David Greenhood in his book “Mapping.” The days may be dark now but the horizon looks bright: Since the winter solstice marks the shortest day and the longest night of the year, the days will begin to stretch out from now until the summer solstice. Come February and March, when cold temperatures have […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on one of the Yajnavalkya Smriti and Ancient Indian Law. The following article was adapted from “Aloysius Michael, Radhakrishnan on Hindu Moral Life and Action, Concept Publishing Company, Delhi, 1979, p. 130”. Jurisprudence or legal system, which is termed as Vyavahara Dharmasastra, is an important portion as far as the Dharmasastra literature is concerned. The development of this Vyavahara dharmasastra can be traced back to the Vedic texts in which certain principles of law are laid down. The term ‘Rta’ that appears in Vedic Samhitas, though it originally meant the uniformity of nature or cosmic order, stands for law and convention, etiquette and moral principles. The concept of Dharma in Vyavahara portion appears to have developed from this idea of ‘Rta’. The special manuals that deal with secular as well as religious laws in ancient India are collectively called as Dharmasutras. They comprise texts of three categories: “The Dharmasutras”, “The Metrical Smritis” and “The Commentaries” and digests called ‘Nibandhas’. These texts are accepted to be the authoritative texts of conducts for the individuals as well as the society. They moulded and governed the moral and social ethics, customs and practices and political laws of Indian society from very ancient times. The Dharmasutras The Dharmasutras, otherwise known as Samayacarikasutras (Samaya means agreement and Acara means custom) form a part of the Vedic supplement called Kalpa Sutras, which include mainly three types of expositions such as Srauta, Grhya and Dharma. The fourth one, Sulba Sutras, can be considered as supplements to the Srauta Sutras as they give geometrical and mathematical patterns of the fire altar and sacrificial sheds etc. in different Yagas. The Srauta and Grhya Sutras exclusively deal with ritual matters while Dharmasutras analyze and interpret the wider relations of the individual to the society. It includes areas of individual and social behaviour and norms as well as personal, civil and criminal laws. Several such texts are referred to or cited by various writers of which only four are actually available now. They are that of Apastamba, Gautama Baudhayana and Vasistha. These texts are not the works of individual authors, but they are traditions of school of thoughts represented by such authors. Though there are differences of opinion regarding the matter which of these texts are earlier or later, generally their dates can be assigned to a period between 6th and 1st century B.C. The central focus of these texts is the religious rites and ceremonies and moral duties of different classes of the community. In connection with these, topics like marriage, inheritance, son-ship and administration of justice are also dealt within them. Different types of marriages, various kinds of sons and their right to inheritance are prescribed in the second book of Apastamba. Kandikas 25 — 29 of the same book deal with several topics like protection of subjects, appointment of security officers, crime and punishment and judicial process. The GDS also covers rules on various matters like marriage, inheritance, partition and Stridhana. The third Khanda of second Prasna of BDS deals with partitioning of the paternal estate, types of sons, inheritance of different sons and inheritance of women. The topics like duties, taxes, crime and punishment and witnesses discussed in this treatise also are noteworthy. Apart from the above mentioned topics, VDS prescribes rules and regulations on adoption, which have been accepted later as the supreme authority in almost all the schools of Hindu law. Quotations from the Dharmasutras of Harita, Vishnu, Sakha and Likhita are available in later Smriti texts. Such quotations prove that those texts also contain prescriptions related to civil and administrative law. It is true that the topics mentioned above contain certain bare references to different aspects of Vyavahara. They do not deal with detailed laws and rules as in later Smriti texts. Still they can be considered as the base for the development of the Vyavahara law in the later Smrti texts. Development of Legal System in Smriti Texts The legal texts composed in Slokas are commonly called as Smritis. In these texts all the legal principles, scattered here and there in Vedic texts and Dharmasutras and the customs and practices accepted by the society, are collected together and arranged in a systematic manner. The earliest representation of such codification is Manusmriti (MS) in which all kinds of religious, social and legal rules are seen described. A more scientific and systematic treatment of these topics is found in YS. The broad division of the text into three parts, Acara Vyavahara and Prayascitta, itself is significant. The Vyavahara dhyaya, which contains twenty five Prakaranas, is devoted to the discussion of the eighteen points of dispute. Here Yajnavalkya does not confine to the eighteen titles of law prescribed by Manu. He states that a Vyavahara arises if any right of any person is infringed or any injury is caused. It can be said that Yajnavalkya inaugurated a new phase in the development of ancient Indian legal system. As far as Narada Smriti is concerned, the entire text is dedicated for Vyavahara portion only. A detailed discussion of the eighteen titles of law, with great clarity, is given there. By omitting Acara and Prayascitta portions, it makes a departure from the earlier works. It also presents some advanced and progressive views regarding juristic principles. Other two important texts related to law are: Brihaspati Smriti and Katyayana Smriti. Both these texts are not traced fully. As regards the Brihaspati Smriti, only a reconstructed text by Prof. K.V. Rangaswami Aiyangar is available now. In the printed text the Vyavahara section covers 228 pages. It is Brhaspati, who for the first time made a clear distinction between civil and criminal justice. The basic concept of law of partnership, laid down in this Smrti, corresponds to the modem concept of the law of partnership. The verses attributed to Katyayana in the commentaries and digests have been collected and published under the title Katyayana Smrti saroddhara by P.V.Kane. These collected verses will convince one […]
The following article is an continuation from the previous article Nada Sound in Vedic Science | 101. i.e. Vayu and Antariksha are Amrita because these are Amrita (immortal). Pervading is their quality. So these are Yat (motion). This is also ‘Tyat’ because it is indivisible by other thing. So He the Supreme Brahman is the lord of Amrita which consists of above all the four qualities that resides in the field and all this is his essence. This Mantra clearly explains that the consciousness is the cause of matter and not the later of prior one. i.e: “Time, inherent nature, necessity, chance, the elements, the subject are not the authors of the Universe. Not even their combinations as there is what is called as Atma superior to all this. Even Atma is not the ‘Isa’ or controller because it is subject to good and bad. This disposes of the materialist argument as material is always an object of good and bad, knowledge and non-knowledge. This Brahman is purposely called objectless consciousness because the presence of object shows the division of that existence into two subject and object, which means the cognizance or understanding. It is no doubt difficult to understand what consciousness without atleast an element of cognizance is. Yet it can never be the object of any cognizance whatsoever. It is the subject, never completely an object. So the mother of whole Universe according to Upanishads is Consciousness. Cognizance is subject-object relationship whereas consciousness is pure ocean like indistinguishable existence. This consciousness is peculiar because it is seen by some one as subject and some other as object.” Another important inadequacy of science is the destiny of sound. Where does the sound of modern physics go? The answers of the sound physicist of the modern age for the question: where does the sound go after the sound source came to rest? What happens to the waves that the sound produced and released? These questions are halting, hesitant and insufficient. They say sound dissipates at this stage. The sound waves having lost their origin, the vibrating source which has seized to vibrate, do not get the energy to renew themselves, and they get weaker and weaker and, finally, when the waves also seize, the sound ceases. But where is the sound dissipated to? No suitable answer is there to physicist. Justice Mukharji wrote that – “Scientists give an explanation as no energy is lost, the modern physicist applies the theory of the conversion of the energy, to say that the sound energy in waves is conveyed to other energies. How it is converted, when it is converted, and what it is converted are questions left unanswered in physics.” Indian metaphysics objects this dissipation or conversion theory of sound. According to metaphysics sound is deathless and more it is the source of the universe. In the words of Mukharji – “When we say that the vibrating wire has ceased to vibrate, we only speak a degree of truth with an equal degree of falsehood. Everything vibrates. The resting atom has within it the vibrating atomic solar system. It is emanating the cosmic radiations all the time. We, of course, do not see them with our eyes. Sound lasts therefore so long Universe lasts as manifestation. Sound therefore is the eternal condition and companion of the Universe. This view has also has an answer to the query, where does the sound ultimately go? The answer is that it is absorbed into the element of Akasha or Vyoman. It is the claim of metaphysics that if you can fashion and refashion your needle of awareness to fit in different grooves of the concentration of sound, then you can play on the disk of the record of the gramophone of the Universe to reproduce any past sound that ever occurred, whether was sounded millions and millions of years ago or yesterday. That is how silence speaks, solitude sings, and the spheres send their sirens. Sound is the eternal witness. Sound is the eternal record. It is the perennial companion which will not submit to any separation. There is no past that can be irretrievably buried. Every sound is in the record of the Akasha indelibly impressed. Books inks and pens therefore are not our only records, Akasha or the Vyoman is the home of all sounds. This sound is described in the metaphysics as Anahatanada, the unstruck sound which creates, destroy and recreate manifold Universe. The shorter the wavelengths and greater the frequency, the greater is the conquest of distance, and you catch the distant sounds across continents. But even the shortest imaginable wave length cannot compare with sound without wavelength or vibration. It not only conquers continents, but also conquers all time and all space. In the case of this Anahata or non vibratory sound, it is no longer a difference between degrees of wavelengths.” Indian metaphysics explains Sphota the unmanifest, potential as Nadabrahman or Sabda Brahma. Two types of sound exist in the words we utter. One is the cause of the sound and other is the one that denotes the object. The source sound resides in the mind in subtle form before the second sound expresses itself in the uttered words or sound. Justice Mukherji explained this as – “every thought or every idea is sound. The moment you think make a sound, though you do not here it. The moment an idea occurs in your mental canvas, there is a sound, though you do not see it or hear it. It is this sound which is the mother of all forms that constitute the manifest Universe. Sound wells out from the stage of non vibration to the stage of vibration. Sound therefore is not always Dhvani, sound includes both the voice and the word and the sound of so called innate objects. While all this is Shabdha or sound, it has a second and a third part. The second part is the Artha, meaning or the object and the […]
Mathomathis would like present an article on Life in the Womb: Conception and Gestation in Buddhist Scripture and Classical Indian Medical Literature By Author: Robert Kritzer The first Noble Truth of Buddhism asserts that all is suffering. In this context, the word “all” means all conditioned things, that is to say, all worldly things. Hence anything that perpetuates the cycle of rebirth in this world can be considered antithetical to liberation and subject to condemnation. A number of Buddhist sutras, meditation manuals, and doctrinal texts, probably written before the third century, describe in various degrees of completeness the stages between one lifetime and the next. Th e process of rebirth begins at the moment of death in one life, continues through the intermediate existence or antarābhava, the moment of conception, and the period of gestation, and culminates in the moment of birth in the next life. Among the Buddhist texts that take up the topic, the Garbhāvā krāntisūtra presents the most detailed description of conception and gestation. Little has been written about this fascinating sūtra. In this chapter, author compare it’s accounts of the crucial moment of conception and the period of gestation with accounts in Indian medical literature, particularly the Charaka Samhita. On the one hand, there are many similarities, which may be the result of mutual influence between the Buddhist sūtra and the medical texts as well as possible borrowing from a now-lost common source. On the other hand, there are also considerable differences, which can be explained at least in part by the fact that the sūtra and the medical texts have different purposes. Before examining the Garbhavakrantisutra, author will start out by briefly discussing some non-Buddhist Indian religious texts that include descriptions of the rebirth process so that the special features of the sutra will stand out in contrast. Th e texts that I mention are not particularly old; in fact, they are all probably more recent than the sūtra. But we cannot conclude that they are based on the sutra. It is more likely that they borrow from the same common sources as the sūtra and the medical literature. Rebirth Accounts in Non-Buddhist Religious Texts:- In stories of the Buddha’s birth, the Buddha, unlike ordinary people, is said to be born in a state of complete purity, unblemished by the messy fluids that normally characterize birth. Furthermore, he causes his mother none of the usual discomforts of pregnancy and childbirth, and he emerges from her side rather than be born in the conventional way. As a result, he completely avoids the “suffering at birth” (janmaduh-kha) and is able to remain conscious for the entire period of conception, gestation, and birth.1 Uniquely, the Buddha remembers all his past lives and embarks upon his last birth confident that he will achieve enlightenment. Th e experience of ordinary people is quite different. Because of the oppressive environment of the womb and the narrowness of the vagina, they lose consciousness when they are born and, with it, all memory of their past lives. As a result, they are doomed to ignorance and to continued suffering in samsāra. A number of non- Buddhist texts, summarized by Hara, describe how the fetus is folded and distorted in the womb, how it is tormented by contact with the food the mother consumes and with her feces and urine, how it is squeezed unbearably by the vagina, and how it is shocked unconscious when it touches the outside air. Other texts go into some detail regarding the development of the fetus in the womb. According to the Agnipurāna, the soul (jīva), aft er entering the womb, first becomes kalala (liquid in consistency). In the second month, it becomes ghana (a solid mass). In the third month, the limbs develop; in the fourth, bones, skin, and flesh. In the fifth month, body hair appears. In the sixth, consciousness develops. In the seventh month, the fetus experiences suffering. Its body is covered with the placenta, and its hands are folded on its forehead. If it is female, it is positioned on the left , if male, on the right, and it faces its mother’s back. If it is neuter, it is positioned in the middle of the belly. Th e fetus knows without doubt in whose womb it is. Furthermore, it knows its past lives since it was first born as a human, and it experiences darkness and great pain. Also in the seventh month, the fetus obtains nourishment consumed by its mother. In the eighth and ninth months, it is greatly afflicted, receiving pain when the mother has sex or is very active and being ill when she is ill. A moment seems like a hundred years; the fetus is tortured by its karma, and it wishfully vows, “Brahman, freed from the womb, will achieve knowledge of liberation.” The fetus is finally turned head downward by the birthwind and goes out, being pressed by the restraint of the vagina, and, for the first month of life outside the womb, it is pained by the mere touch of a hand. The Garbhopanishad also gives a brief, month-by-month description: During the first month, the fetus passes through the stages of kalala, budbuda (bubblelike), and pin․d․a (a roundish lump), becoming solid by the end of the first month. By the end of two months, the head has developed; aft er three months, the feet; four, the ankles, belly, and hips; five, the back; six, the mouth, nose, eyes, and ears. In the seventh month, the fetus is joined with the soul (jīva). In the eighth month, it is complete in its parts, the sex and certain birth defects are determined, and the senses and consciousness can operate. In the ninth month, it is complete in all its qualities and knowledge, and it remembers its past births and its good and bad karma. Aft er this, the fetus contemplates the suffering of repeated births and deaths and resolves to study Sāmkhya and Yoga in order to achieve […]
Definition of Science: Carnap defines Science as – “an ordered body of knowledge.” Skinner, defines Science as – “a search for order, for uniformities for lawful relations amongst events in nature.” In the view of Wartofsky “Science is an activity, a process and continuous inquiry. The procedures, functions and purposes of Scientific inquiry must be kept in view while defining Science. Science is a growing system like an organism.” “Empirical verification and instrumental measurements are the two important characteristics of Scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge, then is basically analytical. It analysis the date of experience into their distinguishable parts or properties or functions and instrumentally measures their qualities. Scientific knowledge, then, is basically quantitative in its nature.” Definition of Sound: Modern Science defines sound as – Sound consists of certain physical events which may take place whether is someone is there to here them or not. Sound is an organized movement of molecules caused by vibrating body in some medium – water, air, rock or whatever. “Of course not” said the philosophers, who were questioning all of nature in the search for a real world. Sound is a sensation, known only to the mind of the listener – a sensary experience which we can relate to our physical and emotional lives. This question still puzzles today – and puzzles them to no purpose. It confuses cause (a physical vibration of some material thing) with an effect (a physiological sensation in an animal brain) and which of the two is sound ? Both Sound originates when a body moves back and forth rapidly enough to send a wave coursing thorough the medium in which it is vibrating. But sound as sensation must be received by the ear and passed on to the brain, where is can be registered as an event taking place in the world about the listener. Over this past 200 years, science has explored both aspect of sounds dual nature. Today we can at last describe with real precision not only the physics of sounds but much of the biology of hearing. Physics explains the origin and the ultimate sound as vibration. Sound according to physics is imprisoned within the limits of the theory of vibrations. “Vibration is defined as the pattern of periodic alternating quantities changes (oscillations) in a medium, induced by the passage of energy through the medium. For example, when a stone drops into the quite waters of the lake, the water is the medium. The splash of the falling stone injects mechanical energy into the water, inducing it to vibrate in waves; this energy travels through the water in the form of ripples, or oscillations, that spread out from the point of impact. These waves are alternating (up and down) changes in quantitative or measurable aspect of the water. The cross-section of the waves and the concentric circles made by them is the pattern. That each wave follows the previous one by the same distance or time interval indicates that the phenomenon is periodic. Each up and down cycle of a wave takes the same amount of time. The term oscillation and vibration are almost synonymous; however, a vibration is usually composed of more than one oscillation.” Is this definition sufficient or accurate in describing the content or native of sound ? Modern physics cannot explain the true nature of sound. Indian metaphysics can only explain the theory of sound, its origin and ultimate limit. Sound is essentially independent of vibration. There is sound which exists without vibration which is the original nature of sound. Sound is the creator but not the creature. According to Indian metaphysics vibration is the effect but not the cause of the sound. Modern physics of sound is inadequacy in the case of its receiver. The biological evolution of the animal ear or the human is the receiver of the sound. These animal or human beings can hear certain frequencies of sound only and beyond or above the frequencies, they cannot hear. Understanding the sound in the stand point of human beings or animals, physics say the lower or the higher frequencies as silent sound. Justice Mukharji in his article: “The Meta-Physics of Sound, said that the vistas beyond the higher limit or below the lower limit are infinite compared to the narrow range of audibility of that ear. To meet that inadequacy the Physics of sound adopted the fiction of silent sound. That fiction means that sound is still caused by vibration, but such sound is not within the normal range of audibility of the ear. The characters of that fiction are ultra sonic, super sonic and infra sonic. While this friction meets the difficult of inaudibility it faces the more insoluble difficult of the medium.” Modern physics has second inadequacy in explaining the medium of sound. It says that the medium of sound is neither a solid or a liquid or a gas. Physics says that sound vanishes when vacuum is created in the medium. “Robert Boyle the British Scientist under took a simple example in 1660 A.D. by suspending a watch with a good alarm from a slender thread in a glass jar. Then he pumped the air out of the jar. We silently expected the time when the alarm should begin the ring and were satisfied that we heard the watch not at all. Wherefore ordering some air to be let in, we did by the help of attention, begin to here the alarm. Boyle had demonstrated that sound requires a medium; some substance through its vibrations can be transmitted.” Here there are vibrations only without sound because there is no medium. The theory of silent sound does not now come to the rescue, says Mukharje: “For it is no longer supersonic, ultra sonic, or infra sonic. It is now legless sound.” What is that then ? Our Indian metaphysics call it static sound, the causal stress. Modern physics has yet failed to discover the static sound. It has discovered the silent sound, a concept […]