The Poet and the Poetry in the Rigveda | 101
Mathomathis would like to present an article which was published by author G.C.Tripathi on The Poet and the Poetry in the Rigveda. Among the ancient-most religious texts of literary character, the Ṛgveda occupies the topmost place of pride, not only because of its spiritually inspired religious fevour and its sublime philosophy, but also for an unexcelled beauty of its poetry couched in a wonderfully well structured language with highly artistic…
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law. The following article is an continuation from the previous article Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law | 103. Readers are expected to complete the previous article, before proceeding here. Two Major Divisions of Law: In the post Smrti period, a large amount of commentaries on various Smrtis were produced. While commenting the older texts, the commentators used to incorporate regional customs and practices in their law books for extending and elaborating the existing laws. Accordingly a work written in a particular locality became the law of that locality. Thus several schools of law were emerged in different regions and they are broadly grouped into two divisions called Mitaksara system and Dayabhaga system. Mitaksara system had its development basing the Mts commentary of Vijnanesvara on the code of Yajnavalkya. Dayabhaga school takes its name after the work entitled Dayabhaga written by Jimutavahana, who might have flourished in the early part of the 12 century A.D. This text appears to be a chapter of a vast treatise on Dharmasastra composed by the author. But this chapter only is now extant. The Dayabhaga had been accepted as the supreme authority in Bengal in matters of Hindu law such as inheritance, partition and Stridhana. In all other parts of India the Mitaksara was accepted as paramount authority. These two schools of law fundamentally differ in two main particulars, namely the joint family system and the law of inheritance. The Mitaksara system was based on the principle that the property belongs jointly to the men of the family. The sons, grandsons and great grandson’s sons acquire right to the ancestral property by birth. This is called ‘Janmasvatvavada’ or the theory of ownership arising on birth. But in Dayabhaga school they can acquire it only after the death of the father. There is no right by birth. This is called ‘Uparamasvatvavada’ or the theory of ownership arising on death. In these two systems all the rules and regulations on partition and inheritance are governed by these two basic principles. The Commentaries on Mitaksara: As stated earlier, Mts was accepted as an authority in almost all parts of India, except in Bengal. Because of its widespread acceptance, numerous commentaries have been produced on this work. P. V. Kane has enlisted nine commentaries which are: Subodhini by Visvesvarabhatta Balambhatti by Balambhatta Pramitaksara or Pratitaksara by Nandapandita Mitaksarasara by Madhusudana Gosvami Siddhantasangraha by Radhamohansarma Vyakhyanadipika by Nirdurivasavopadhyaya and Other three commentaries, the names of which are not known, written by Halayudhabhatta, Mukundalal and Raghunatha Vajapeyi. Among them those of Visvesvarabhatta, Balambhatta and Nandapandita are more important. Subhodhini of Visvesvarabhatta: Visvesvarabhatta whose probable date can be considered as the later half of 14th century A.D. was a portage of Madanapala who belonged to the family of ‘Taka’ kings of ‘Kastha’, a city on the banks of Yamuna River to the north of Delhi. The author himself gives his whereabouts in the Subhodhini commentary and also in the introduction of his work called Madanaparijata. P.V. Kane points out that Visvesvara was a native of the Dravida country and in search of patronage he reached the court of Madanapala. It is believed that the four Dharmasastra works, Madanaparijata, Smrtimaharnava, Tithinirnayasara and Smrtikaumudi attributed to Madanapala, were actually composed by Visvesvarabhatta himself. Subodhini might have been written before his migration to North India. This is considered as the most celebrated commentary on Mts. Visvesvarabhatta does not comment each word of Mts, but gives only useful expositions of the difficult provisions of the text. This text with an English translation has been published by Sri. J.R. Gharpure in the Hindu Law text Series. Balambhatti by Balambhatta: Balambhatti, otherwise known as Laksmivyakhyana, on Mts is almost the latest work in ancient Indian law. The date of this commentary can be fixed as later half of the 18 cen. A.D. as a manuscript of the Acarakanda of this work is dated Samvat 1831 which corresponds to 1774-75 A.D. The authorship of the work is an enigmatic one. In the introductory verses of the commentary it is stated that it is written by Laksmi, wife of Vaidyanathapayagunda: But several references in the text make one suspect that it was written by Balakrishna, son of Vaidyanathapayagunda. After an elaborate discussion, P.V. Kane concludes thus: “Therefore it follows either that the Balambhatti was composed by Vaidyanatha himself and ascribed to his wife or that the work was composed by Balakrishna alias Balambhatta son of Vaidyanatha and was ascribed to his mother.” This voluminous work consisting of 10000 verses is the most elaborate commentary on Mts. Among the three portions, Prayascitta is very brief while the other two, Acara and Vyavahara are much exhaustive. The commentator has given more importance to the Acara section and so it gets the status of an independent work. This text is also edited by J.R. Gharpure and published in 1914. An English translation also is available. Pramitaksara or Pratitaksara by Nandapandita: Nandapandia, an esteemed exponent of the Mitaksara in the Banares sub-division, has written a commentary on Mts which is referred to as Pratitaksara in his Vaijayanti commentary on Visnudharmasutra:It seems that the author has not completed this work. Only fragments are found with his descendants. The author is a voluminous writer on Dharmashastra and has credited with the authorship of more than ten works in this field. His Dattakamimamsa is accepted as an authority on adoption throughout India. He lived between the later half of the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century. The Sub-schools of Mitaksara System: Due to the difference of various conditions in the society and the customary practice of different regions, the Mitaksara system itself was adopted with certain local variations in different parts of the country. As a result, this system came to be subdivided into four minor schools namely Benares School Mithila School Maharastra or Bombay School and Dravida or Madras School. The Benares school, covering a substantial portion of Northern India, […]
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s. Before proceeding further on the following article, its advised to complete the previous article on: Types Of Vimanas | Rukma Vimana | Atha Rukma Vimana Nirnayaha | 103 Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2: “Tripurothha.” | “Next Tripura.” Bodhaananda Vritti: This vimana has 3 enclosures, or aavaranas or tiers. Each aavarana is called “Pura.” As it consists of 3 aavaranas it is called “Tripura” vimana. It is operated by the motive power generated by solar rays. Narayana also says:- The vimana which naturally can travel on land, sea, and in the sky by alteration of its structure is called Tripura Vimana. It has got 3 parts. The first part can travel on land. The second part can travel under and over water. The 3rd part travels in the sky. By uniting the 3 parts by means of keelakas, the plane can be made to travel in the sky. The plane is divisible into 3 parts so that it might travel on land, sea, or air. The construction of the 1st part is now explained. Tripura vimana should be made out of Trinetra metal only. Trinetra loha is explained by Shaakataayana:- Jyotishmatee loha 10 parts, kaanta-mitra 8 parts, vajramukha loha 16 parts, these 3 to be filled in crucible, then adding tankana or borax 5 parts, trynika 7 parts, shrapanikaa 11 parts, maandalika 5 parts, ruchaka or natron 3 parts, mercury 3 parts, then filled in crucible in padmamukha furnace and heated to 631 degrees with trimukhee bellows, the resulting liquid, if poured into cooler, will yield a metal, shining like peacock feather, unburnable, unbreakable, weightless, impregnable by water, fire, air and heat, and indestructible. With that metal the peetha should be prepared, of any desired size. The following is given as an example. It may be 100 feet wide and 3 feet thick, round or square. Leaving 20 feet on the western side, at intervals of 10 feet 80 spots should be marked for wheeled boats. 80 feet long, 3 feet wide, 5 feet high boat shaped dronies or containers should be fixed on the marked lines. Three feet wide openings should be made in the top of the dronies, so as to raise the wheel inside them quickly and cover them underneath. There should be fittings which enable the wheels to be lowered on land, and raised and covered underneath when going in water. The wheels should have axle rods with fittings to attract electric power. The axle rods should be 2½ feet long and 1 foot thick. The wheels should be 3 feet wide and 1 foot thick, have, 5, 6, or 7 spokes, fixed in the rims, and covered with musheeka up to 4 inches from the edge. Holes with glass coverings should be made in all the wheels. These 12 wheels, or 8, or 6, or 4, should be fixed inside the boat like structure. For transmitting power wires made of somakaanta loha should be fixed in the holes made in the wheels. In the middle of each wheel electric aaghaata keelakaas should be fixed, and in them chhidraprasaarana keelakas. Over all the chakradronee boats, copper wire pairs should be fixed on both sides, and in the joints of the wheels. Rods should be attached to the wires so that power could be drawn from the wires and passed to the top of the wheels. And power should be passed to the wires underneath the wheels. In climbing hills, and going down slopes, by adjusting the power at the top or the bottom of the wheels, smooth progress is made possible. By adjusting the necessary keelakas it is possible to accelerate the speed, or in going down, to restrain the flow of the current, and put brake on excess speed. For attracting power from the generator a naala or pipe with wires should be fixed at the front of the peetha through 5 faced wheel keelakas, and the wires should be connected to the fittings at the top and bottom of the wheels, with glass cups. In order to put covering over the boat formations, pillars should be fixed between each boat line, and covered with mica sheets, as per architectural rules. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 3:- “Shuddhhaambaraattadhhi.” | “Out of pure mica alone” Bodhaananda Vritti: The vimana should be made out of pure mica alone. Mica is described in “Dhatu sarvasva “. There are four kinds of mica, white mica, red mica, yellow mica, and black mica. The white mica has 16 varieties. Red mica has 12 varieties. The yellow mica has 7 varieties. And the black mica has 15 varieties. Thus there are 50 varieties in all. Shownakeeya also says:- There are of 4 castes which are: brahmin, kshatriya, vysya, and sudra. They are of 50 varieties. The brahmin mica has 16 varieties. The kshatriya mica has 12 varieties. The vysya mica has 7 varieties. And the sudra mica has 15 varieties, totalling 50 in all. Their names are as follows. The brahmin mica varieties are ravi, ambara, bhraajaka, rochishmaka, pundareeka, virinchika, vajragarbha, koshambara, sowvarchala, somaka, amritanetra, shytyamukba, kuranda, rudraasya, panchodara and rukmagarbha. The kshatriya varieties are shundeeraka, shambara, rekhaasya, owdumbara, bhadraka, panchaasya, amshumukha, raktanetra, manigarbha, rohinika, somaamshaka, and kourmika. The vysya varieties are krishnamukha, shyaamarekha, garalakosha, panchadhaara, ambareeshaka, manigarbha, and krownchaasya. The shoodra varieties are gomukha, kanduraka, showndika, mugdhaasya, vishagarbha, mandooka, thailagarbha, rekhaasya, parvanika, raakaamsuka, praanada, drownika, raktabandhaka, rasagraahaka, vranahaarika. Out of these, pundareeka from the 1st class, rohinika from the second, panchadhaara from the third, and drownika from the 4th class are good for use in constructing the vimana. These should first be purified as per […]
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. Readers are advised to complete the previous article https://mathomathis.com/vaimanika-shastras-vimana-shastras-102-32-secrets/ before proceeding further. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 11: “Phala Moola Kanda Saarovaa | “Or essence of fruits, roots, and bulbs.” Bodhaananda Vritti: In this sutra it is stated that preparations made from edible roots, potato and other bulbous vegetables, and from fruits are also suitable as food. “Ashana-Kalpa” says, If food made of grains is not available, that from roots, bulbs, and fruits may by used as food, in the form of flour, sugarcandy, manjoosha or jaggery, honey, milk, ghee, oily-products, and roots and berries which contain sweet, salt, pungent, acrid, and alkaline tastes. Such roots are said to be 56 in number. They should be purified, powdered, and duly cooked, and made into balls, and given out for use as food. Similarly the bulbous vegetables which are of 16 kinds, and fruits which are of 32 kinds, and food prepared out of them are excellent food, Food from roots develops brain, nourishes the body, strengthens the bones, and gives virility. Food from bulbs promotes brilliance, and bodily vigour, and strengthens the life current. Food from fruits nourishes mind, intelligence, blood, flesh, and vital liquids. Therefore these alternatives are recommended for pilots of Vimanas. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 12: “Apicha Trinaadeenam | “Even grasses, herbs and shrubs.” Bodhaananda Vritti: This sutra indicates that even grasses, herbage, and creepers, could be made to yield food. Says “Ashana-Kalpa”, Like roots, bulbs and fruits, grasses, shrubs and herbs, provide good food for men. Six kinds of doorva grass, 6 kinds of munja hemp, 6 kinds of darbha or long grass, 6 kinds of shoundeera, and 6 kinds of Ashwakarna or sal, or mimordica charantia, Shatamoolee of 3 kinds, Kaaruvellee; Chandravellee, Madhuvellee, Varchulee, Makutee vellee, sugandhaa, and sooryavellee may be made to yield good food, nutritious and bracing. Selected by men who know them well, these vegetation, including their flowers, shoots, and leaves, by proper cleaning and cooking, may be made to yield solid or liquid food, which will serve as satisfactory substitute food for pilots of Vimanas. And Somavallee or moon-plant, Chakrikaa, Rasavallikaa, Kooshmandavallee, Ikshuvallee, Pishtavallaree, Sooryakaanta, Chandrakaanta, Meghanaada, Punarnava, Avantee, Vaastu, Matsyaakshee, and Rukma and others, provide good bases for lasting food, duly mixed with sweets and condiments. Lohaadhikaranam: Metals Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 13: “Athha Yaana Lohaani | “Next, the Metals for aeroplanes”” Bodhaananda Vritti: Having dealt with clothing and food for pilots, now the metals suitable for aeroplanes are being dealt with. Says Shounaka: There are 3 kinds of metals named somaka, soundaalika, and mourthwika. By mixing them, 16 kinds of heat-absorbing metals are produced. Their names are ushnambhara, ushnapaa, ushnahana, raajaamlatrit, veerahaa, panchaghna, agnitrit, bhaarahana, sheetahana, garalaghna, amlahana, vishambhara, vishalyakrit, vijamitra and Vaatamitra etc. “Maanibhadra Kaarika,” or “Dictas of Manibhadra,” Says, “Metals which are light, and are suitable for producing aeroplanes are 16. They are heat absorbing, and should be used in the manufacture of aeroplanes.” Saamba also says that the 16 metals formed by mixing the root metals, soma, soundaala and mourthwika, are non-heat-conductors and are useful for Vimanas. Their characteristics are now examined. In the 7th layer of the earth, in the third mine therein, metals of the Soma series are found. They are of 38 kinds. Among them there are three from which Ooshmalohas or heat resisting metals are to be extracted. “Lohatantra” or “Science of Metals” also says that in the 3rd section of the 7th layer of the earth, Metals of Souma class, possessed of 5 special qualities, are called “beejalohas” or “root-metals”. There are 3000 metal bearing layers within the earth. Of them 1300 layers contain the better quality. In the 7th layer metals are of 27 types. The 3rd type of metals are of five-fold qualities, and are known as root metals. The origin of metals of the Soma class is thus described in “Lohakalpa.”: “The gravity of the centre of the earth, the gravity of global earth, the solar flood, the air force, the force emanating from the planets and stars, the sun’s and moon’s gravitational forces, and the gravitational force of the Universe, all together enter the layers of the earth in the proportion of 3, 8, 11, 5, 2, 6, 4, 9, and, aided by the heat and moisture therein, cause the origin of metals, of various varieties, grades and qualities.” The Souma group of metals are named, as per sage Atri, in “Naamaartha Kalpa”. “Souma, Sowmyaka, Soundaasya, Soma, Panchaanana, Praanana, Shankha, Kapila are the names of the Souma metals, with distinct qualities indicated by their names.” The name “Souma” consists of sounds, s, on, ma, and ha, “Paribhaasha Chandrika” and “Vishwambhara Kaarikaa” state, “The oceanic force and solar force instil 4 kinds of forces into root metals. The sum total of the forces are said, according to “Vaalmeeki Ganitha” to number 1, 67, 768. Some of these forces are indicated by the sound “s” Some of the forces emanating from the sun and the elements are indicated by the sound “ou”. Similarly other concerned forces are indicated by the letters “ma” and “ha”. The Varuna and Soorya force contents of all root metals are of four groups. In each group the force content is said to be 1, 67, 768. Of the Koorma and Kashyapa forces of Vaaruna group, the 67th from Ooshaa koorma, and the 85th Kaashyapa force, called “Kaala”, are indicated by the letter “Sa”. Of the solar group of forces, maartaanda and bhoota 71st, and the ruchika force 160 are indicated by the sound “ra”. Similarly, of the forces of sun and stars in aditi, the 9th called “Sundaa”, and the stellar force 101 called “Bhowma” are indicated by the letter “Ma”. And in the dhruva varga, soma and baadaba forces, 109 and 14 respectively, […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Concepts of Space, Time, and Consciousness in Ancient India by notable author Subhash Kak (Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5901) March 5, 1999. The artcile describes Indian ideas of the early-Puraana / Mahaabhaarata times (centuries BC) on the nature of space, time and consciousness that would be of interest to the physicist. In order to simplify references, we quote mainly from Yoga-Vasistha (YV), which is representative of that period of Indian thought. YV professes to be a book of instruction on the nature of consciousness but it has many fascinating passages on time, space, matter and cognition. This paper presents a random selection that has parallels with recent speculations in physics. It also presents a brief account of the context in which ideas of YV developed. Ancient Indian ideas of physics, available to us through a variety of sources, are generally not known in the physics world. Indian astronomer/physicists, starting with a position that sought to unify space, time, matter, and consciousness, argued for relativity of space and time, cyclic and recursively defined universes, and a non-anthropocentric view. The two most astonishing numerical claims from the ancient Indians are: a cyclic system of creation of the universe with a period of 8.64 billion years, although there exist longer cycles as well and speed of light to be 4,404 yojanas per nimesa, which is almost exactly 186,000 miles per second (Kak, 1998) A critic would see the numbers as no more than idle coincidences. But within the Indian tradition it is believed that reality, as a kind of a universal state function, transcends the separate categories of space, time, matter, and observation. In this function, called Brahman in the literature, inhere all categories including knowledge. The conditioned mind can, by tuning” in to Brahman, obtain knowledge, although it can only be expressed in terms of the associations already experienced by the mind. Within the Indian tradition, scientific knowledge describes as much aspects of outer reality as the topography of the mindscape. Furthermore, there are connections between the outer and the inner and we can comprehend reality only because we are already equipped to do so! Author’s certain papers listed in the bibliography can serve as an introduction to these ideas and point to further references for the reader to examine. Two philosophical systems at the basis of Indian physics|and metaphysics| are Samkhya and Vaisesika. Samkhya, which is an ancient system that goes back to the 3rd millennium BC, posits 25 basic categories together with constituent qualities, which evolve indifferent ways to create the universe at the microcosmic as well as the macrocosmic levels. It also presupposes a potential” (tanmatra) to be more basic than the material entity. Vaisesika is a later system which is an atomic theory with the non-atomic ground of ether, space, and time upon which rest four different classes of indestructible atoms which combine in a variety of ways to constitute all matter; it also considers mind to be atomic (Kak, 1999). These systems presuppose genesis and evolution both at the cosmic and psychological levels. They also accept cyclic and multiple universes, and centrality of observers. Unfortunately, historians of science are generally oblivious of Indian physics, astronomy or cosmology. Amongst popular books, Paul Halpern’s The Cyclical Serpent (1995) is an unusual book in that it places modern speculations regarding an oscillating universe within the context of the cyclic cosmology of the Puranas, but even this book doesn’t define a context for the Indian ideas. In this article author presents, in a capsule form, the basic Indian ideas on space, time, and observation from the age of the epics and the early Puraanas. The ideas of these period seem to belong to last centuries BC and they are described in the Mahabharata, Puraanas, and the early Siddhantas. To keep our sources to a minimum, author uses mainly Yoga-Vasistha (YV), which is an ancient Indian text, over 29,000 verses long, traditionally attributed to Valmiki, author of the epic Ramayana, which is over two thousand years old. Vedic and Puranic Cosmology: The Vedas are texts that represent the ancient knowledge tradition of India. While their compilations go back to at least the third millennium, some of their contents might be even older (Feuerstein et al, 1995). There are several statements in the Vedic texts about the universe being infinite, while at the same time the finite distance to the sun is explicitly mentioned (Kak, 1998a-d). Aditi, the great mother of the gods, is a personification of the concept of infinity. A famous mantra speaks of how taking infinity out of infinity leaves it unchanged. This indicates that paradoxical properties of the notion of infinity were known. In a reference to mapping the outer world into an altar made of bricks, the Yajurveda (hymn 17) names numbers in multiples of ten that go upto ten hundred thousand million. This also suggests a belief in a very large universe. The Satapatha Brahmana, a commentatorial prose text on the Veda, that most likely goes back to the early centuries of the second millennium BC, provides an overview of some broad aspects of Vedic cosmology. The sixth chapter of the book, entitled Creation of the Universe”, speaks of the creation of the earth later than that of other stars. Creation is seen to proceed under the aegis of the Prajapati (reference either to a star or to abstract time) with the emergence of Asva, Rasabha, Aja and Kurma before the emergence of the earth. Visvanatha Vidyalankara suggests that these are the sun (Asva), Gemini (Rasabha), Aja (Capricorn) and Kurma (Cassiopeia). This identification is supported by etymological considerations. The Rigveda 1.164.2 and Nirukta 4.4.27 define Asva as the sun. Rasabha which literally means the twin asses are defined in Nighantu 1.15 as Asvinau which later usage suggests are Castor and Pollux in Gemini. In Western astronomy the twin asses are to be found in the next constellation of Cancer as […]
Nasadiya Sukta is one of the renowned suktha in RigVeda:- 129th suukta of the 10th mandala of the Rigveda. Mathomathis would like to present on the Sukta. nāsad āsīn no sad āsīt tadānīṁ nāsīd rajo no vyomā paro yat | kim āvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmann ambhaḥ kim āsīd gahanaṁ gabhīram || 1 || Then even nothingness was not, nor existence, There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping Was there then cosmic water, in depths unfathomed? na mṛtyur āsīd amṛtaṁ na tarhi na rātryā ahna āsīt praketaḥ | ānīd avātaṁ svadhayā tad ekaṁ tasmād dhānyan na paraḥ kiṁ canāsa || 2 || Then there was neither death nor immortality Nor was there then the torch of night and day. The One breathed windlessly and self-sustaining. There was that One then, and there was no other. tama āsīt tamasā gūl̥ham agre ‘praketaṁ salilaṁ sarvam ā idam | tucchyenābhv apihitaṁ yad āsīt tapasas tan mahinājāyataikam || 3 || At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness. All this was only unillumined water. That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, arose at last, born of the power of heat. kāmas tad agre sam avartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṁ yad āsīt | sato bandhum asati nir avindan hṛdi pratīṣyā kavayo manīṣā || 4 || In the beginning desire descended on it. That was the primal seed, born of the mind. The sages who have searched their hearts with wisdom know that which is kin to that which is not. tiraścīno vitato raśmir eṣām adhaḥ svid āsīd upari svid āsīt | retodhā āsan mahimāna āsan svadhā avastāt prayatiḥ parastāt || 5 || And they have stretched their cord across the void, and know what was above, and what below. Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces. Below was strength, and over it was impulse. ko addhā veda ka iha pra vocat kuta ājātā kuta iyaṁ visṛṣṭiḥ | arvāg devā asya visarjanenāthā ko veda yata ābab || 6 || But, after all, who knows, and who can say Whence it all came, and how creation happened? The gods themselves are later than creation, so who knows truly whence it has arisen? iyaṁ visṛṣṭir yata ābabhūva yadi vā dadhe yadi vā na | yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman so aṅga veda yadi vā na veda || 7 || Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows – or maybe even he does not know.