Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Functions of Dhatus according to Ayurvedic kriya Sharir (Dhatukarmabhyas) | Research Article By Sunil Tulshiramji Mehetre | Corresponding Author: Assistant Professor & HOD, Department of Kriya sharir, S.C.M. Aryangla Vaidyak mahavidyalaya, I.T.I. Road, Gendamal, Satara-415002 (Maharashtra). Supplemental Issue of National Seminar on Empowering and Empanelling Ayurveda System of Medicine Organized by SC Mutha Aryangla Vaidyak Mahavidyalaya, Satara on 26-27 March 2015. Published online in http://ijam. co. in. Ayurveda is an Ancient medical science related to healthiness & unhealthiness of a person. The main aim of ayurveda is to acquire purushartha by means of Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. For this purpose each person should be healthy in terms of body & mind. The definition of healthy person according to ayurveda is to balance Dosha, Dhatu, Mala, Agni, Kriya, Prasanna Atma, Indriya, & Mann. These healthiness is defined by comparison to physiological parameters i.e. sharirkriyatmak parameters which are mentioned above. The balance of Dhatus is called as dhatusamya is one of the important parameter of healthy person. According to Ayurveda there are seven dhatus in a person, these are rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja, shukra. These dhatus are defined as per their functions called as karmas. These are important for healthy state of the body. As per ayurvediya kriya sharir “Dosha Dhatu Mala mulam hi shariram” thus dhatu is most important part of body because both dosha & mala are live with dhatu. Hence if we carried out the detail study of functions or karmas of dhatus then we definitely get the fixed parameters which help us to keep the person healthy & to give health to the person who are suffering from disease.


Ayurvediya kriya sharir is divided in to Dosha, (functional principal) Dhatu (constitutional principal) & mala (waste products). Equilibrium of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala is essential for healthy person. If thus Equilibrium is preatu karma is important. Sent in person then that person is fit to resume Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha which are the four purushartha of human life. In other words it is clear that equilibrium of both dosha, dhatu, mala, in a person is a state of healthiness and when this equilibrium doesn’t exist then the state is unhealthiness. Ayurvediya kriya sharir mentioned the dosha, dhatu and malas, according to their qualities (guna) and function (karma). The study of “Doshakarmabhyas” is possible by observing the effect of Dosha gunas on our body & mind.

Malas are expelled from our bodies, hence the examination of malas is also possible. The remaining dhatus in equilibrium state acquired the body and also nourishes to each other by laws:-

  • kshirdadhi
  • kedarkulya and
  • khalekapot.

The dosha & mala are living with dhatus & the diseases also begin from dhatu vaishmya, because khavaigunya. (starting of disease) also occur in dhatu. Thus dhatus also play important role in our body & mind. Hence if we collect all functions of dhatus serially & develop the parameters according to function of dhatus then the concept of dhatus & their functions has been well elaborated, which is helpful for aim of swasthsya-swasthya rakshan & aturasya vikar prashamanach. 

Author aims:-  To study the functions of Dhatus according to Ayurvedic kriya sharir. i.e. (Dhatukarmabhyas.) and its main Objectives  or point of study are:

  • To collect all functions of sapta-Dhatus described in Ayurveda
  • To develop parameters in healthy person & to check functions of Dhatus with the help of Ayurvedic literature &modern science.
  • To study functions of Dhatus.

Review of literature:-

  • “Karma”:- Ayurvedic definition prayatnadi karma chestitmuchyate / charak su. Ad. 1/49.
  • Panchmahabhutatmak constitution of our body
    • Dosha: vata: vayu+Akash mahabhutadhiky
    • Pitta: Tej mahabhutadhikya
  •  Kapha: Apa +pruthvi mahabhutadhikya

Dhatu:

  •  Ras: Apa mahabhutadhikya
  •  Rakta:Tej +Apa mahabhutadhikya
  • Mansa: Parthiv mahabhutadhikya
  • Meda: Apa+ Parthiv mahabhutadhikya
  • Asthi: Parthiv+ vayu mahabhutadhikya
  • Majja: Apa mahabhutadhikya
  •  Shukra: Apa mahabhutadhikya

Mala:

  •  Purish: parthiv mahabhutadhikya
  •  Mutra: Apa+Tej mahabhutadhikya
  • Sweda: Apa mahabhutadhikya

Description of dhatus according to:-

  •  Nirukti
  • Definition
  • Dhatubheda –poshya & poshak
  • No. of Dhatu
  • Place of dhatu in our body (sthan)
  • Dhatu swarupa
  • Dhatu poshana with different theories
  • Dhatvagni
  • Dhatu parinati –kal.

 Description of each Dhatus according to:-

  • Nam
  • Nirukti
  • Synonyms
  • Place
  • Parinati
  • Swarup & guna (qualities)
  • Sar lakshan
  • Quantity (Praman)
  • Function
  • Types
  • Upadhatu
  • Mala
  • Kshaya lakshana
  • Vruddhi lakshana

Collective functions of saptadhatu as per Vagbhatacharya & Susrutacharya:-

  • Ras- prinan, tushti, raktaposhan
  • Rakta- Jeevan, sharir varna, dhatupuran, bal, sukha, asandighdha sparshayan, mansa poshan
  • Mansa: lepan , bal, medapushti.
  • Meda: snehan, swedotpatti, drudhatva, asthipushtikam.
  • Asthi: dharan,majjaposhan.
  • Majja: Asthipuram, preeti, snehan, bala, shukrapusti
  • Shukra: Garbhotpadan, dhairya, chavan, dehabala, preeti, harshan.

Materials &methods:-

  • Place of study: Dept. of kriya sharir, Govt. Ayurvedic College Nanded-431601
  • Period: 2000 to 2003
  • Inclusion criteria
    • Age group- 20 to 40 Yr.
    •  Number of person- 50
    •  Healthy persons which are doing their daily activities easily & not suffering from any disease.
    •  Only male persons because semen analysis test is one parameter in shukra dhatu function.
  •  Area: Nanded & Parbhani city.
  •  By random sampling method.

Exclusion criteria:

  • Age group: Below 20 & above 40 yrs.
  •  Persons suffering from systemic diseases.
  • Females.

Method

  • Darshan sparshan prashne parikshet ch Roginam// Astang hruday Ad 1/12.
  • Darshan prashna sasparshe pariksha trividha smruta// charak chikitsa Ad 25/ 22.

All the measurable things concern with function of Dhatus & above method is used for examination. Dhatu function wise description is as follows.

Ras Dhatu:-

  •  Prinan- Ras Dhatu saryakti lakshne, nadi parikshan, measurement of blood pressure, Examination of Heart as a mula sthan, ECG.
  •  TUSHTI – Darshan, sparshan, prashana, pariksha.
  •  Raktaposhan – Darshan, sparshan, prashan pariksha.

Rakta Dhatu:

  • Jeevan- Hb%, RBC Count, respiratory rate.
  • Sharirvarna: Rakta dhatu sarvyakti lakshane, darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha.
  • Dhatupuram;Nadi pariksha, examination of blood pressure.
  • Bala: Harward step test
  • Sukh: darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha.
  • Asandigha sparshdhyan- use of cotton, pin & til tail.
  • Mansa poshan – Darshan, Sparshan, Prashna Pariksha.

Mansa Dhatu:-

  • Lepana-measurements by tape of parts of body described in mansadhatusar lakshane, weight, muscle tone.
  • Bala-By weight lifting.
  • Medapushti- Darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha.

Meda Dhatu:-

  • Snehan- meda dhatusar lakshane, measurement of abdomen by tape, body mass index, west hip ratio.
  • Swedotpati- Darshan,sparshan, prashna, pariksha.
  • Drudhata
  • Astipustikarma

Asthidhatu:-

  • Dharan – Asthi Dhatusar vyakti lakshane,weight, height, nail, & teeth examination,
  • Majjaposhan- Darshan, sparshan , prashna pariksha.

Majja Dhatu:-

  • Asthipuran- majjadhatusar lakshane, Reflexes.
  • Preety: – Darshan sparshan, prashna pariksha.
  • Snehan
  • Bala- sharir bala, manobal, smruti, buddhi pariksha.
  • Shukra pushti- darshan, sparshan, prashna pariksha.

Shukra Dhatu:-

  • Garbhotpadan- for married prashna pariksha , for unmarried semen analysis test,
  • Dhairya; Darshan, sparshan, prashna.
  • Chavan
  • Dehabala
  • Preety
  • Harshan

Equipment & instruments for examination:-

  • Rasa Dhatu – vernier calliper, stop watch, spygmomanometer, haemocytometer, stethoscope, ECG machine.
  • Rakta Dhatu:-Haemoglobinometer, haemocytometer, stop watch, cotton, pin, til tail.
  • Mansa Dhatu -Tape, weighing machine, weight lifting.
  • Meda Dhatu – Tape.
  • Majja Dhatu – clinical hammer, paragraph for smruti parikshana, charts for buddhi parikshana.
  • Shukra Dhatu – semen analysis kit, Dropper, glass slide, microscope.

Author have performed a detailed examination considering above parameters. The examination of person has been done as per paper by using above mentioned tools with darshana, sparshana, prashna pariksha. The findings are recorded person wise. Thus the assessment is made as per method mentioned above and after examination of 50 persons the following results where observed:

  •  The age group in between 20 to 33 yr.
  • Twacha sukshmatva in between 1.5 to 3.5 mm.
  • Pulse rate between 64 to 100/min.
  • Blood pressure systolic in between 100 to 140 mm of hg. Diastolic in between 60 to 90 mm of hg.
  • Haemoglobin in between 11 to 16 gm%.
  • RBC In between 3.2 to 6.4 millions/mm3.
  • Respiratory rate 16 to 24 /min.
  • Weight in between 41 to 74 kg.
  • Mansadhatu bal in between 2.5 to 7 unit
  • The time to absorb one drop of Til tail in between 10 to 60 minute.
  • BMI in between 14.52 to 28.12 kg/m2.
  • Waist hip ratio in between 0.69 to 0.92
  • Height in between 153 to 178 cm
  • No. of teeth in between 28 to 32.
  • 20 pravar, 26 madham, & 4 avar manobal.
  • 13 uttam, 34 madhyam, & 3 hin smruti.
  • 02 uttam, 29 madhyam, 19 hin buddhi.
  • Volume of semen in between 1.5 to 4 ml.
  • Sperm count in between 53 to 90 million/ mm3.
  • Sperm motility in between 52 to 80 %.

Author’s Conclusion are:-

  •  Dhatusar lakshana are useful to determine the functions of dhatus.
  •  Modern parameters which are used are also useful to determine the function of dhatus.
  •  Vagbhatacharya explained one main function of each dhatus. Susrutacharya explained many functions of dhatus.
  • If the area & sample increased for study of function of dhatus. & by taking help of modern parameters then it is beneficial to develop parameters of functions of dhatus.
  • From the above discussion it is concluded that the above study is helpful to keep functions of dhatus in balance state in our body and little path towards the studies function of dhatus according to Ayurvedic kriyasharir.