Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103) Their website can be located The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of thier research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD.

Simulations using Planetarium Software and the date of the war: A search is made for the years in which there is a conjunction of Saturn (sani) with Aldebaran (Rohini) between 3500 BCE and 500 CE. As Saturn takes an average of 29.5 years to go around the sun once, the event also repeats with the same period. There are 137 such conjunctions during the interval specified in the previous section/articles. A search is then made for those years from among these 137 dates when Mars (angaraka) is retrograde before reaching Antares (Jyestha). Since the retrograde motion of Mars repeats with the same period as its synodic period, a spread of two years on either side of each of the dates was considered in the search. The search reduced the set to just seventeen: 3271 BCE, 3067 BCE, 2830 BCE, 2625 BCE, 2388 BCE, 2183 BCE, 1946 BCE, 1741 BCE, 1503 BCE, 1299 BCE, 1061 BCE, 857 BCE, 620 BCE, 415 BCE, 28 CE, 233 CE and 470 CE, when Saturn was near Aldebaran and Mars executed a retrograde motion before reaching Antares. A search is then made for those years in which there is a lunar eclipse near Pleiades (i.e., on the Karthika Purnima). This reduces the set to just two, 3067 BCE and 2183 BCE. It turns out that in both of these years the lunar eclipse is followed by a solar eclipse at jyestha. A sequence of ‘two eclipses within a period of 13 days also occurs in the two eclipse seasons. When one considers the fact that Bhisma passed away on the Magha Shukla Astami, after the occurrence of winter solstice, a unique date results, for the winter solstice in January 13, 3066 BCE occurred on sukla panchami where as the winter solstice in 2182 BCE occurred on Krishna Chaturthi. Thus a unique date of 3067 BCE for the date of the war emerges. The author has shown that this date is consistent with all the other astronomical references in the epic in several publications with the help of copious illustrations of star maps generated by Planetarium software. Some of them will be included as part of this essay by way of illustration

Illustrations: Astronomical events are reproduced, shown from the figure(s) below (Star Maps). In the 1st Figure, the day lord krishna starts on his diplomatic mission, it is clearly seen that moon is near revati, and sani is at rohini. Second Figure, shows the full moon in kartika, it also happens to be a lunar eclipse day. At this time, lord krishna is busy with the peace talks in Hastinapura. In the 3rd Figure, lord krishna rides with Karna after the failure of the peace mission, it is Uttaraphalguni. Seven days from that day, it will be amavsya at jyestha. Lord Krishna sends the message to Bhisma and Drona to start the war rituals that day. 4th Figure shows the star map for that that day, which is also a solar eclipse day. The retrograde loop of Mars in that year is also shown in the figure. The retrograde motion of Mars before reaching Jyestha had occurred several months earlier. 5th Figure shows the day the war starts: moon is at bharani. 6th Figure shows the fourteenth day, when the war continues until the wee hours (mean the early hours of a day, or the period immediately after midnight) of the morning and stops when the moon rises. 7th Figure shows the last day of the war, it is Shravana Nakshatra and lord balarama returns. 8th Figure shows the day of Bhima’s expiry: Shukla Astami, Rohini Nakshatra.

Indian Astronomy - Astronomical Dating of Events - 104
Krishna Mission for Peace: Departure on September 26, 3067 BCE & Full Moon of Kartika. Lunar eclipse Day September 29, 3067 BCE
Indian Astronomy - Astronomical Dating of Events - 104
Karna rides with Krishna uttara phalguni nakshatra October 8, 3067 BCE
Indian Astronomy - Astronomical Dating of Events - 104
Jyestha amavasya solar eclipse day.October 14, 3067 BCE.; Retroloop of Mars
Indian Astronomy - Astronomical Dating of Events - 104
Figure: War begins November 22, 3067 BCE. It is Bharani day
Fourteenth Day of War. Moon rising at 2:30 am seen just above the horizon
Figure: Fourteenth Day of War. Moon rising at 2:30 am seen just above the horizon | Last day of the war. Balarama returns on the Shravana Day.
Figure:. Bh$&ma’s Expiry. M@gha ^ukla a&{ami rohi%i nak&atra. January 16, 3066 BCE
Figure: Bhisma’s Expiry. Magha Shukla Astami, Rohini Nakshatra. January 16, 3066 BCE

The sheer volume of astronomical data and the consistency of the astronomical references reinforce conclusively the traditional belief that the war took place about five thousand years ago, and that the astronomical references are not clever interpolations of some latter day astronomer. The date established, 3067 BCE, provides the ‘sheet-anchor’ for the history of India

The uniqueness of this date: It should be noted that the date of 3067 BCE has been derived entirely on the basis of astronomical information found in the epic alone. No information from any other outside source has been used. This date is identical to the date proposed by four other scholars. However, more than forty scholars have proposed a date for the Mahabharata war ~3000 BCE. Of these seventeen have proposed 3102 BCE, ten other authors have proposed 3101 BCE, seven authors have proposed 3139 BCE, some 3138 BCE, and 3137 BCE respectively. The question naturally arises which should be accepted and which should be rejected, if any. It is very easy to demonstrate that none of these dates can reproduce the astronomical events as described in the epic. For example, Figure shown below the star map for October 19, 3138 BCE, it is jyestha amavasya, and according to Dr. Vedavyas, war began on that day. However, the day of jyestha amavasya is required to be a solar eclipse day, as per the conversation between lord krishna and and Karna:

rahurarkamupesyati…and..saptamacchapi divasad amavasya bhavisyati….tamahuh sakradevatam

but October 19, 3138 BCE is not a solar eclipse day. The solar eclipse in that year had occurred on August 21 near [email protected] and not near jyestha. Furthermore, Shani is at mula and not rohini, and angaraka is at ardr (where he becomes retrograde later in the year) and not past anuradha having become retrograde before reaching jyestha as described in the epic. In short, none of the astronomical events described in the epic are satisfied for this date. The author has demonstrated this noncompliance for a large number of other dates that have been proposed for the date of the war. Additional details can be obtained from several publications of the author.

Figure 9. New Moon Day , October 19, 3138 BCE. Jye&{ha nak&atra, but no eclipse; Saturn at m#la
Figure: New Moon Day , October 19, 3138 BCE. Jyestha nakshatra, but no eclipse; Saturn at mula