Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Iyaarappan is Harappan by author T.L.Subash Chandira Bose, Anitha Kumar and M.Pandurangan. In Ancient Indian subcontinent, there were two regions at where five rivers flow. One is in North-West region and other one is in South-East region. In ancient time, it is said to be that there was a river called Saraswathi flowing in the North-West region which might have got dried up due to heavy deposition of sediments of sand or natural calamities. The five rivers flowing in North-West region are Indus, Jhelum-Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. These five rivers begin their journey from Mount Himalayas, flow towards South – West and finally join together as one and became Sind/Indus River. It drains in Arabian ocean (Sindu Sagar). The name of the North-West region where those five rivers flow is called ‘Panjanadha. The five rivers flowing in South-East region are Cauvery, Vadavaaru, Vennaaru, Vettaaru and Kudamurutiyaara. The mother of these five rivers is Cauvery which begins its journey from Western hills Gudaku or Kudagam, flows toward East and drain in Bay of Bengal (Kalinga Sagar). The name of South -Eastern region at where these five rivers flow is ‘Panjanadhi’. An Indo-Greeks map of 100 century B.C.E, shows the location of ‘Panchanada(m)’. In which the letter ‘Cha’ has to be read as ‘Ja’ (Thanks to the kind heart for publishing the map).

Mathomathis - Iyaarappan Is Harappan
There is also another reference about Panjanada in”Kangra the Katoch Saga” (p.13), “.the five rivers of the Punjab were known in ancient times as Panchanada or Panjanadam.

This name which is at least as old as the Mahabhasya of Patanjali 200 B.C., is still preserved in the (maintained with the) designation Panjanad given to the united streams”.

Panjanadham and Panjanadhi: The words ‘Panjanadham’ and ‘Panjanadhi’ are to be divided into two as ‘Panja + nadham’ and ‘Panja + nadhi’ respectively. The common word is ‘Panja’. In Thamizh language, Panja is numerical number five ‘Ayinthu’ in short the letter ‘I’. ‘I’ is the ninth life letter in Thamizh alphabet. Also the common word for both ‘Nadham and Nadhi is ‘Aaru (river)’. Hence the common word for both ‘Panjanadham and Panjanathi is ‘(I+aaru) Iyaaru’  The name Iyaaru (five rivers) became as (Panja+ Appu) Panjaappu (five water) and presently the region is called as Punjab province. (Appu means water in Thamizh)

Panjanatheeswaran or Iyaarappan: The South-East region particularly in TN where five rivers (Iyaaru) flow is considered as a sacred region. It is identified by affixing the respecting Thamizh word ‘Thiru’. It is (Thiru + Iyaaru) ‘Thiru(va)iyaaru’. In this sacred place, there is a ‘Panchanatheeswarar temple’ with two shrines viz., ‘Southern Kailalayam and Northern Kailalayam’, dedicated to Lord Siva. The names of Lord Siva and his consort in these shrines are “Thiru Panchanatheeswaran and Thiru Aram Valartha Nayaki”. The ‘Panchanatheeswarar temple’ is popularly known as Iyaarappan temple. The names ‘Easwar, Easwarar and Easwaran’ are the names used to address Lord Siva. In Thamizh, the word “Appa” means father, but “Appan” means Great father or Lord (Perumaan). The name “Appan” is mostly used by the devotees to praise Lord Siva with full of love and devotion (Anburai). Hence (Iyaaru + appan) Iyaaruappan or Iyaarappan is the name of Lord Siva. In Panniru Thirumurai, particularly in Thiruvaiyaaru Sthalapuranam poems 2456 – 2459, praise the Lord Siva as Iyaatrupperumaane, Iyaaraane.

Iyaarappan is Harappan: May be during the unknown period of time and due to some other reasons the letter ‘Iyaa’ had pronounced as ‘Ha’, letter ‘a’ became silent and the name ‘Iyaarappan was spelled as Harappan’ and its society as ‘Harappan Society’. In 1940, an archaeologist Sir M.S. Vats discovered three numbers of Shiva Lingams at Harappan region which are said to be 5,000 years old. This evidence proves that Lord Siva worship had prevailed among the Iyaarappan/Harappan society. From the above we can come to a conclusion that the names ‘Harappa and Harappan’ might have been arrived from the Thamizh names ‘Iyaarappa and Iyaarappan’- Father of five rivers who is Lord Siva.