Upanishads and Quantum Philosophy Compared | 101
Study of the Upanishads reveals that the ancient seers had insights into the unified, complimentary, indeterminate and relative nature of the universe. The later findings of the modern physics too brought out a world view quiet akin to the Seers’ mystic findings. Both were led by some creative visions which appear more or less equal in their findings. History of thought is colored with the argumentative stand of science and…
Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained. Puranas contain history of remote times. They are meant for common people and describe the times, troubles and triumphs of their heroes. A Purana usually gives prominence to a certain deity (Shiva, Vishnu, Krishna). Most use an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts in their narration from Bhakti to Sankya. According to Matsya Purana, they deal systematically with five subjects called Pancha Lakshana. They are – Sarga – The creation of the Universe Pratisarga – Secondary creations after dissolution Vamsa – Genealogy of Gods and sages Manvantara – Creation of the human race and the first human beings Vamsaanucharitam/Vansanucharitam – Dynastic histories. A Purana, generally, gives importance to a particular deity and treats other deities to secondary roles. This is to increase the faith in their particular Ishta-Devata. The following section is based on Srimad Bhagavatam. At same time, it is not intended to give complete details of the entire Bhagavatam. The aim is to give a broad picture on the genealogy of prominent men and women of their times. Beginning:- There was a great deluge. The entire Earth was submerged in water. Lord Narayana was absorbed in Yoga nidra after the Maha pralaya. He was reclining on the great serpent Adisesha. The entire Universe had been withdrawn into Him and lay dormant in Him. The three Gunas Sattva, Rajas and Tamas were in equilibrium. So it was a long time. Then TIME caused a disturbance in the three Gunas and the equilibrium was upset. Out of the navel of the Lord Narayana emerged a thin stalk. This grew into an immense lotus. Into that lotus entered the Lord in another form which was Brahma. Brahma found that he had four heads. He then looked around and saw large expanse of water and nothing else. It seemed to him that the waves around appeared to be telling him to perform Tapas/Meditation. He then did the Tapas/Meditation for hundred years (Do note: The 100 years what is been mentioned here is not the time of planet earth). All of a sudden, he saw the form of Lord Narayana in his mind. Brahma realized He was the Purusha. Lord Narayana told him “I have set you the task of creating the world and so the creation of the world began. Out of the mind of Lord Brahma were born the four Rishis Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. Brahma asked them to take up the task of creation and multiply. However, the minds of the Rishis were made up of attaining salvation. They refused to undertake the task of creation. Brahma was angry with them but he controlled it. However, his anger took up a form and emerged out of his forehead. The child began to cry as soon as he was born. The child asked for a name and a place to stay. Brahma told the child “Do not cry. Since you cried the moment you are born, you will be called Rudra. The heart, the senses, life, the sky, air, fire, water, earth, the sun, the moon and tapas are the places assigned to you. You can go now and produce many in your image”. Brahma then created ten sons out of his body. These were – Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Daksha, Marichi, Vasishtha and Narada. Dharma and Adharma were also born out of Brahma. Out of his heart was born desire and out of his brows anger. His shadow took a form and this son was named Kardama. From his mind and body was created this entire world. The four Vedas were born out of his four faces. Brahma then divided his body into two; one was male and the other female. They were called Svayambhu Manu and Shatarupa. As soon as he was born Svayambhu Manu asked his father what he wanted him to do. Lord Brahma commanded that the work of creation should be continued. At that time the Earth was submerged in water and the Manu did not have a place to start. Brahma then sought the help of Lord Narayana who assumed the form of a boar in order to raise the Earth from below the water. He plunged into the ocean, located the earth, raised it on his tusks and began to climb. An Asura named Hiranyaksha tried to stop His progress, but he was killed. Svayambhu Manu and Shatarupa produced five children; three were daughters- Akuti, Prasuti and Devahuti. The sons were Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Akuti was married to a rishi by the name Ruchi, Devahuti to Kardama and Prasuti to Daksha. The children of these and their descendants have populated the world. Daksha had thirteen daughters. He gave them in marriage to Kashyapa, son of Marichi. Diti was one of them. Diti’s sin:- One evening just after Kashyapa finished his evening worship, Diti came to him and wanted him to make love to her. Kashyapa refused pointing out that evenings are sacred for the worship of Mahadeva. However, Diti was determined to have her way. As a result of her sin, Diti gave birth to two sons and both of them were wicked. They were known by the names Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu. It was this Hiranyaksha who was killed by Lord Narayana in the form of Varahamoorthy. Hiranyakashipu also hated Lord Narayana intensely. However, his son Prahlada was a great devotee of the Lord. Hiranyakashipu persecuted everyone including the Devas. However, when he started punishing his son he crossed the limit. Lord Narayana killed him manifesting in […]
Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained. Before proceeding with the following article, complete the previous article The following article provides/gives a diagrammatic view of the hierarchy that was discussed in our previous articles. Readers can right click on the image and select the option “Open image in new tab” for better readability.
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s. Before proceeding further on the following article, its advised to complete the previous article on: Types Of Vimanas | Sundara Vimana | 102 “Atha Rukma Vimana Nirnayaha” | Next the principles of Rukma Vimana Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1: “Rukmascha” Sootra” | “Rukma too” Bodhaananda Vritti: This vimana is of golden colour. Therefore it is called Rukma vimana, Rukma meaning gold. The Rukma should be made out of Raajaloha only. By duly processing, Raajaloha can be made to assume golden colour. That metal should be used for the vimana. “Yaana-Bindu” says:- “After first producing golden colour for Raajaloha, the vimana should be formed.” “Varna-sarvasva” mentions the colouring process: Praana-kshaara or ammonium chloride 4 parts, wild Bengal gram 32 parts, shashakanda (or lodhra?) benzoin? 18 parts, naaga or lead 20 parts, sea-foam 16 parts, maakshika or iron pyrites 6 parts, panchaanana or iron 20 parts, paara or mercury 15 parts, kshaara-traya or 3 kinds of salt: natron, salt-petre, borax, 28 parts, panchaanana or mica 20 parts, hamsa or silver 17 parts, garada or aconite 8 parts, and panchaamrita or 5 sweets–curds, milk, ghee, sugar, honey, these should be filled in the melter, and after boiling, and drawing the liquid through two outlets, fill in the crucible and place in furnace, and blow to 800 degrees’ heat, and then transfer it to the cooler. That will be Raajaloha, pure, golden-coloured, tensile, and mild. The vimana, made out of this loha or alloy, will be very beautiful and delightful. The Peetha:- The peetha or ground plate of the Rukma vimana should be tortoise-shaped, 1000 feet long, and 1 foot thick, or any other desired size. On its eight sides, 20 feet long spaces should be fixed underneath the peetha. At each centre fixtures like birds’ beaks should be attached with revolving keelakas. Then double iron-balls or wheels, in couples, should be fixed in each of the 8 centres. Ayas-chakra:- Lalla gives the form of ayaschakra-pinda: 12 feet long and wide, and 8 kankushtas in weight, they should be made round like a grind-stone. They should be inserted in the beaks at the 8 centres. From each chakra-pinda up to the electrical generator chain wires should be connected with switches. Batinikaa-Stambha Or Button-switch pole:- One foot wide and 4 feet high poles should be fixed. They should have switches wired up to the electric pole. 8 inches wide wheels should be fixed in the middle of the pole, on either side, with wires. From the electric pole chain wires should enclose the wheels and be fixed in another pole with inside hinges. On the top of the poles should be fixed goblet shaped cups with button-switches like half-blooms with wheels and keys, so that on pressing the button with the thumb the wheels in the other pole will revolve from electric contact. Then the wheels in the electric pole will also revolve, producing 5000 linkas of speed. Flying Due to this electrical force, the ayah-pinda wheels beneath the peetha will beat against it and make it rise and move upwards. And by moving the switches of the wheeled poles above the peetha, the poles will revolve with speed, and accelerate the speed of the vimana. By the concussion of the wheels underneath, and the action of the poles above, the vimana will move upwards and gain height and fly with dignity. Electric tube wheels aiding flight:- Above the peetha, naalas or tubes should be fixed at 1 foot intervals. On both sides of each naala toothed wheels 2 feet wide and 1 foot high should be fixed with proper keelakas. Taking electric wires through the keelakas, and passing over the wheels and reaching the foot of each naala, they should be attached to wheels 3 feet wide and 3 feet high. In the midst of 20 naalas a pole should be fixed in the centre. Narayana says:- Preparing a pillar 4 feet wide and 4 feet high, and making a 2 feet opening in its middle, fix keelakas at the top, middle, and lower end of the opening. Two keelakas with 6 wheels, with glass coverings, with wires, and naala and leather covering should be fixed at the lower end for attracting electricity. In the middle part of the opening, for transmitting the current, a five-faced keelaka should be fixed, with 5 wheels, glass covering, 2 naala tubes, two wires, attached to 3 rods, and vessel containing veginee oil. By the flow of the current the wheels in the upper end should be made to whirl by properly adjusting keys. In front of the opening a big wheel should be fixed with gumbha keelakas. Similarly wheels should be fixed at the foot of each pillar. On top of them a four inch wide pattika or flat band should be adjusted commencing from the samsarga key chakra up to the front of the electric yantra. By operating that key, power will flow through the wires, and entering the key at the foot of the pillar set the wheels in motion. On the motion of the big wheel the sandhi-wheels in the naala-dandas will also revolve with speed, and the current will enter the 5 faced keelaka, and entering the oil vessel it will gather force, and passing through the 2 naalas, set all the wheels in the pillar in forceful motion, generating 25000 linkas speed, which will give the vimana 105 krosa or nearly 250 miles speed per ghatika, or 24 minutes. Having dealt with the mechanism for setting the vimana in motion, we now consider the mechanism for giving direction to the vimana in its course. […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Cosmo Graphical Mapping by JOSEPH E. SCHWARTZBERG. The following article would start a conversation on a topic called as: MICROSCOPIC ANALOGUES OF THE COSMOS Just as the Brahman, or universal spirit, infuses all things, so too, for many ritual purposes, an infinitesimal portion of the human domain is taken to represent the whole of the cosmos. Such symbology, of course, is not exclusively associated with religions of Indian origin, but what makes it noteworthy is that, when religious practitioners carry out rituals embodying cosmic symbols, those symbols are often drawn on a prepared field according to well-defined formulas with clear conventions as to how the cosmos is to be spatially differentiated and at what scale various portions of the cosmos are to be laid out. In these respects and possibly in others, the performance of certain rituals and the building of particular types of edifices incorporates an essentially cartographic process. The earliest Aryan sacrifices involved building altars or vedis, some of which were remarkably large and elaborate structures. Vedis, however, are by their nature ephemeral artifacts. One may still stumble on vedis or their archaeological remains in traveling about India, but sacrifices today are much less important than they were in Vedic times, and their physical appurtenances are therefore commensurately rarer. I am aware of no vedis preserved in, or specially built for, a museum or preserved in situ in their completed state for post sacrificial viewing. Rather, dismantling the vedi is often a part of the ritual process. At a much more modest scale, certain folk sacrifices also entail cosmic or terrestrial symbolism, or both. One such example involves a festival known as the Govardhan Puja, in which adherents to the cult of Krishna make offerings to Mount Govardhan in the region of Braj, not far south of Delhi, where Krishna spent his youth. A legend in the Bhagavata Purana relates how Lord Krishna persuaded the cowherds of Braj to give up their worship of the Vedic god Indra and worship Mount Govardhan instead. In his wrath, the angry Indra caused seven days and seven nights of rain to visit the region of Braj. But Krishna protected the cowherds by raising Govardhan on his little finger, letting them and their cattle find shelter beneath it. Today Krishna’s devotees, in several parts of India, fashion mounds of cow dung into the form of Mount Govardhan, which they then worship. Into the dung they insert trees fashioned from stems of grass with tufts of cotton or rag on top, and around the mountain they place little men and cattle fashioned from balls of dung. Thus, in effect, a three-dimensional terrain model finds a place in a religious ritual. Like the preparation of vedis, the construction of Hindu temples has since ancient times been regulated by an elaborate set of instructions covering every aspect of the work. The various scriptures containing these instructions- commented on briefly above-date from at least the first century B.C. These texts, as author has noted, relate also to building in general and include chapters on building houses and on planning, laying out, and building villages and towns. In her classic work The Hindu Temple, Stella Kramrisch sets forth and explains in great detail the rules for temple building. These rules include drawing on ground leveled for the temple a plan called the vastupurusamandala, which is regarded as a “forecast” of the temple, “the fundament from which the building arises,” and “the place for the meeting and marriage of heaven and earth, where the whole world is present in terms of measure, and is accessible to man.” Thus temple construction, like that of vedis, required the preparation of an ephemeral one-to-one scale map. It seems not unlikely, however, that many smaller-scale plans would also have been prepared, at least for large and complex temples, with which India abounds. What is true of Hindu temples is, with appropriate modifications, also true of Buddhist stupas, whose cosmographic symbolism is in fact more explicit and easier to discern than is that of most temples. Although Buddhism became virtually extinct in India proper by about the thirteenth century and most Buddhist monuments have as a consequence fallen into ruin, dozens of massive masonry stupas have, in varying degrees, withstood the ravages of time; and a few, such as the Great Stupa at Sanchi, initially constructed in the third century B.C. and greatly enlarged in the following century, are very well preserved or restored. Additionally, there are many other large stupas on or near the periphery of India, in the Himalayas and Sri Lanka, as well as in trans-Himalayan Tibet and Southeast Asia. Because of the particular association of stupas with Lamaistic (Tibetan) and Theravada (Southeast Asian) Buddhism. Jain temples and shrines tend to be quite ornate, but in general their styles over the centuries and from one region to another have not varied significantly from those of the Hindus. In city planning and secular architecture, Indian builders were, at least in theory, to be guided by theoretical texts that incorporated cosmographic and astrological principles. A number of these, collectively known as vastuvidya, were allegedly authored by ~~is (mythical sages) and gods. In fact, the texts “appear to be collective works, built up of successive stratifications, of accretions, elaborations and modifications [over] the course of many centuries.” As with temples, builders were enjoined by these texts to draw mystic diagrams (yantras) on the ground as a forecast, in effect, of what was to emerge there. Even in domestic architecture, there were associated cosmographic rituals. When constructing a house, one had to take into account at the outset the position within the ground of the vastupurushamandala, the cosmic man, embodying the supreme principle or Brahman. This mandala, inherent in the earth itself, was marked on the ground before building could commence , as depicted in Figure 1 below [About Figure 1: This drawing, from an old Indian manual of architecture (title, date, and provenance unspecified), shows […]
Metaphysics is branch of philosophy that concerns with ultimate reality sustaining the apparent world of flux in which life and matter have become cosharers in the space-time continum. Mind is consciousness of life and matter, availing both in the terrestrial process. The space-time continum rolls on these two actualities of life and matter. HENRY BERGSON, in his “Creative Evolution”, accepts this dualism of life and matter. In BERGSON’s philosophy, the world “is divided into two disparate portions, on the one hand life; on the other hand, that inert something which the intellect views as matter. The whole universe is the clash and conflict of two opposite motions; life which climbs upward, and matter, which falls downward. Life is one great force, one vast vital impulse, given once for all from the beginning of the world, meeting the resistance of matter, straggling to break a way through matter, learning gradually to use matter by means of organization; divided by the obstacles, it encounters into diverging currents, like the wind at a street comer; partly subdued by matter through the very adaptations which matter forces upon it; retaining always its capacity for free activity, straggling always to find new outlets, seeking always for grater liberty of movement a mid the opposing walls of matter. The question is two-fold one : one, the process how and second, the principle why life should seek to break through the matter. The chemical evolution has taken water to be the primal matter which the life, at its inception, has broken through. The chemical evolution conceives life as a singular, continuous, uniform phenomenon, though compounds of creation have shared it on gradually ascending orders, having made provision for due completion among the preceding orders. The difference in biological or psychological levels among classes of created beings, is an upgrading of life on planes one higher than the other. Each power order is an incentive for onward progression which marks that there has been continuous stream of life in an uprising course. The natural selection or the survival of the fittest bespeaks of the progression of the simple compounds of the elements of nature into the creation of organic compounds. The data collected by the chemical evolution theory is a recorder of the strides taken by life for its emancipation from the initial appetitive stage for an elevation to the meditative stage. The origin of life, in the chemical evolution theory, has been traced to the alchemy of lighter compounds, diffused freely in nature, in the substantive forms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, combining with each other and resulting into the formation of the basal compounds of water, ammonia and methane. The trans-combination of these simple compounds went into the formation of more sophisticated compounds like glucose, glycerine and the fatty acids, and the process continued until the creation of virus considered to be the first representative of embodied life. Composed only- of nuclic acid, the virus reacted upon another compound of protein and a combination of the two brought about the origin of the nucleo-protein endowed with the faculty of reproduction. The first step towards evolution of animate existence was the origin of appetitive life, possessing nothing more than the mere appetite of reproduction. The fermentation of life came to soon discover that this very crude appetence could not be sustained without being energized from another material source. The primal life assessed in the chrysalis of a single cell, therefore, aspired to come into contact with a source of energy. The Sun has been the single source of energy in the universe. The cellular life came in communion with the Sun. The Sun is the nucleus of the universe, and since a communion could be possible only from nucleus to nucleus, the cellular life, so far not endowed with a nucleus, had to emerge one for generation into it of a substance known as the chlorophyll, meant as an absorbent of solar energy by use of which the appetitive life evolves into the vegetative life. The Sun as a centre of the universe, became also the sustainer of life. The vedic term “Vishnu” understood as the sustainer of all life on earth, is a synonym of the solar energy. This proves the sustenance of life as a singular, continuous, uniform phenomenon making it possible for the components of creation to share life on unlike but gradually ascending orders. In the ascending order of creation, the vegetative life evolved into the animal or the instinctive life which culminated finally into the meditative life, fee life of fee homo-sapien. The advent of the horao-sapien is the apex evaluation of life. It is the homosapien which values life most, and the homo-sapien differs from the lower order only in terms of his power of meditation. The emergence of the meditative life is end of alchemy of evolution. Having created in life the requisite consciousness for higher phases of human existence, the biological evolution has culminated its purpose, leaving the species as they are, without resurrection of those which have become extinct in the struggle for existence and without elevation of all total lower species into homo-sapiens. Such arrival of the meditative life, the biological evolution has come to a stand-still and tire evolutionary process has thereafter rested with reproduction of life on the biological level. Evolution advances, thenceforth, in the meditative life of the homo-sapien. Meditation is an order of thought towards progression. The evolution of meditative life aspires for attainment of values to human life. The meditative evolution is a process of regeneration of values. The “upanishad” has summarized this evolutionary process of life in a terse statement that earth is the sap or essence of the elemental forces of nature, that water is the sap of earth; that the sap of human is vegetation; that sap of vegetation is human life; that sap of human life is mediation, which is “vak” or the reflective sense of speech; that the sap of reflective speech is “rik” or […]