Vedic Roots | Classical Division – (Conclusion)
Vedic Roots | Classical Division | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article would focus on Vedic Roots – A Classical Division. Before proceeding with the following article, read the previous article Kalpa is the method of the ritual Srauta Sutra: Explains the rituals of sacrifices. Grihya Sutras: Rituals in domestic lives…
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 106 (Buddha’s Date)) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. The date of Sankaracharya has been discussed in great detail by a very large number of scholars. For some details the works of Kota Venkatachelam and the essay of Ramachandran may be consulted. For the purposes of the present essay, the planetary positions at the time of birth of Adi Sankara and given in the article by Ramachandran is sufficient. The horoscope is given by Citsukhacarya, a boyhood friend of Sankara, in his work Brhadvijaya. According to it Sankara was born in the year Nandana of Kaliyuga 2593 (509 BCE) in the month of visakha, suklapaksa pancami tithi, punarvasu naksatra, karkataka lagna, in the abhijinmuhurta. The Figure A shows a star map for April 5, 509 BCE and it is easily seen that tithi, lagna, naksatra and the positions of the planets are exactly as described in the horoscope. This verifies that the planetary configuration as given for that date is correct. However, caution must be exercised in deriving the dates based on horoscopic data alone.
Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 1: Jaati tryvidhyam Yugabhedaad Vimaanaanaam | “Three types according to changing Yugas.” Bodhaananda Vritti: The sootra indicates that there are different types of planes, and that they are of 3 types. In the Krita Yuga, Dharma or Righteousness was four-footed, that is, it was four-square, fully established, all paramount, and it was adhered to implicitly by men. The men were inherently noble-born and were possessed of remarkable powers. Without needing to go through yogic discipline to attain special powers, or practice mantras which secured extraordinary results, the men of that yuga, merely by their devotion to dharma, became Siddhapurushaas or gifted with superhuman powers. They were virtuous men and men of learning and wisdom. Going in the sky with the speed of wind by their own volition was natural to them. The eight super-sensory, and now superhuman, attainments, known as animaa, mahimaa, garimaa, laghimaa, praaptih, praakaamya, eeshatwa, and vashitwa, were all possessed by them; That is: Animaa is assumption of infinitesimal shape; Mahimaa is growing into gigantic shape; Garimaa is becoming astonishingly heavy; Laghimaa is becoming weightless; Praaptih is securing any desired thing; Praakaamyam is becoming rid of desires; Eeshatwa is attaining paramountcy; and Vashitwa is becoming extremely pliant. The age of Krita yuga = 1.728.000 years, Threthaa yuga–1.296.000 years, Dwaapara yuga–864.000 years and Kaliyuga–432.000 years. Therefore in Krita Yuga, or first epoch, the ancients say, there were none of the three classes of Vimaanas. Krita Yuga passed; and Tretaa Yuga commenced. In Tretaa Yuga: Dharma then became limp of one foot. It served with 3 feet only, and grew gradually less efficient. So men’s minds became dense, and the conception of Vedic truths, and anima and other super-sensory powers, became scarcer. Therefore, by the corrosion of Dharma or righteousness, men lost the power of flying in the sky with the speed of wind. Perceiving this, God Mahadeva, desiring to confer the power of understanding the Vedas properly on the Dwijas, or brahmins, kshatriyas, and vysyas, graciously descended on earth in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, and through the instrumentality of Sanaka and other anointed sages, classified the Veda mantras, and then bestowing his benedictory glance on the worshiping Munis or ascetics, he blessed them with the gift of Vedic perception. And then to ensure that they were properly receptive, he embraced them and entered their hearts and illuminated their memories. The munis, overwhelmed by the Divine grace, aglow with horripilation, with voice choked with emotion, praised the Supreme with shata-rudreeya and other hymns, and manifested profound devotion. Pleased with their receptiveness, divine Dakshinaamurthy, favoring them with a benign glance, and with smile on his face, said to them, “Till now you have been known as “Munis” or ascetics. Henceforth, having by my grace attained insight into the Vedas, you shall be known as “Rishis” or seers. You will cultivate the Vedic mantras, and practicing celibacy, you will adore the divine Goddess of the Vedas, and winning her favor, and approaching the Great God Easwara by Yogic Samadhi, ascertain His mind, and by His and my grace, rising to the pinnacle of intellectual vision, become adepts in the meaning and purport of the Vedas; and confirming by them your own experiences and meditative introspection, you will create the Dharmashaastras or moral codes, Puranas and Itihaasas, and physical and material sciences, in conformity to the truths of the Vedas, for the benefit of mankind. And for travelling in the sky, propagate the art of manufacturing Vimaanas, and for attaining wind-speed, evolve Ghutica and Paadukaa methods through Kalpashaastras or scientific treatises.” Then those munis or seers, enshrining in their hearts God Mahadeva in the form of Dakshinaamurthy, produced the Dharmashaastras or ethical codes, epics, chronicles, manuals on rituals, treatises on the arts and sciences, ritualistic and sacrificial codes, in conformity to the Vedas, and propagated them among men. Amongst them it is said that there are six treatises bearing on the manufacture of Vimaanas produced by the ancient seers. In them are described three classes of vimaanas, known as maantrikaas, taantrikaas, and kritakaas, capable of flying everywhere. It is said in Vimaana Chandrika, “I shall indicate the different kinds of vimaanas. In Tretaa yuga as men were adepts in mantras or potent hymns, the vimaanas used to be produced by means of maantric knowledge. In Dwaapara yuga as men had developed considerable tantric knowledge, vimaanas were manufactured by means of tantric knowledge. As, both mantra and tantra are deficient in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are known as kritaka or artificial. Thus, owing to changes in dharma during the yugas, the ancient seers have classified the vimaanas of the 3 yugas as of 3 different types.” Vyomayaana Tantra” also says: “By the influence of mantras in Tretaa, vimaanas are of maantrika type. Owing to the prevalence of tantras in Dwaapara, the vimaanas are of taantrika type. Owing to decadence of both mantra and tantra in Kaliyuga, the vimaanas are of artificial type.” Thus 3 classes of vimaanas are mentioned in shaastras by ancient seers. In “Yantra Kalpa” also: “Vimaanas are classified into mantra and other varieties by experts according to differences in yugas. They are defined as maantrika, taantrika, and kritaka.” The same is expressed in “Kheta yaana pradeepika,” and also “Vyoma Yaana Arkaprakaashikaa.” Thus according to shaastras vimaanas are divided into 3 classes, on the basis of differences in the modes of their manufacture. Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2: “Pancha-vimshan Maantrikaaha Pushpakaadi Prabhedena” | “Maantrika Vimaanas are of Pushpaka and other 25 Varieties.” Bodhaananda Vritti: In the previous Sutra vimaanas were specified as of 3 types owing to differences in the 3 yugas. […]
In the following article, team mathomathis would showcase an information about Hopi Vedic Parallels by Prash Trivedi and understand the message of the author in the following article. Though a number of indigenous people and tribes exist all across the globe, it can be safely said that none of them have as deep an insight into the condition of Mother Earth and the wisdom to deal with it as our Hopi brothers. They are the chosen ones of the Creator as they were granted permission to hold in trust all land and life for the great Spirit at the time of emergence of the Fourth world, of the Hopis or the present age. This conclusion about the Hopi people has not been reached in haste. It has been borne out of the wisdom of ancient Indian philosophy which transcends even the starting of time and boundaries of our present Universe. According to the ancient Indian scriptures the creator “Param Brahma or Adi Purusha” created the Universe through his creative power “Adi Shakti” in a plan which comprised of three axes and several vibratory centers along these axes. Everything in the visible Universe from the smallest to biggest is made on the basis of this plan. These seven centers also exist inside the body of man as man is made in the image of the creator. The central axis in man lies along his backbone. The primordial power “Kundalini Shakti” lies in the acrum bone at the base of the spine. The awakening of this power and its journey through the seven centers is the first step in the process of self realization. Through this realization comes the wisdom to exist in harmony with Mother Nature and the capacity to realize the action-less, omnipresent, and eternal Creator. These vibratory centers also exist in the Mother earth. The Hopis also have a similar perception of the creation of the universe by the Ultimate Creator “Taiowa”. There is an idea of Mother Nature as a Spiderwoman who is responsible for the creation of these vibratory centers which echo the sound of the creator. The Hopi wisdom is also aware of the central axis and man’s axis being the backbone which controls the equilibrium of his movements and functions. The Hopi legend also talks about “Palatkwapi” or the Red House located somewhere in Central America having four stories and on the top storey there is learning of planets and stars. In this story man also learnt about the “Open Door” in the top of their heads, how to keep it open and converse with the Creator. This “Open Door” of Hopi mythology is the same as the seventh center on the central axis, and is called “Sahasrara” – the thousand petaled lotus in the Hindu scriptures. When the primordial power or the “Kundalini” is able to pass through the last center one can commune with the Creator. With time, detailed knowledge about these centers were lost among the Hopi people, but it can still be found in the holy land of India. India has time and again seen the incarnations of the Great Spirit, who have kept alive this knowledge throughout the ages. Knowledge of the ancient Indian scriptures strongly indicates that the area known as the “Four Corners”, where the Hopis have settled is an important vibratory center which will cause the emergence of the new age which is known as the Fifth World by the Hopi people. Let’s consider some facts: The Hopi believe the Creator of Man is a woman. The Sumerians believed the Creator of Man was a woman. Vedic tradition and most of the other ancient civilization believe in the feminine aspect of the creator. Vedic tradition calls her as Prakriti (Mother Nature) or Shakti (creative force responsible for weaving the web of life). Interestingly, the Hopi regard her as Spiderwoman, i.e. the one who has woven the web of life. This was the predominant thinking of most of the civilizations during the Age of Cancer, the mother sign, which lasted from around 8000B.C to 6000B.C. The Hopi believe the Father Creator is KA. The Sumerians believed the Father Essence was KA. The Vedic tradition also believes that the root of the father essence is ‘KA’ which is the first alphabet of Sanskrit, the primary language of the Vedic tradition. The Hopi believe Taiowa, the Sun God, is the Creator of the Earth. The Sumerians believe TA.EA was the Creator. The Vedic tradition also believes that the earth was born out of the Sun and has been nourished by it ever since. The Sun is seen and worshiped as the material representation of the one true God, the eternal creator provider and destroyer, in both the cultures. The Hopi believe two brothers had guardianship of the Earth. The Sumerians believed two brothers had dominion over the Earth. Almost all the cultures including the Egyptians, Mayans, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and the Jews have this concept of twin gods or brothers presiding over the affairs of the earth. This concept arises from the dual nature of the world we live in symbolized by Gemini, the sign of the twins, and worship of these twin gods was at its peak in the Age of Gemini ranging from around 4000 B.C to 2000 B.C. The Hopi believe Akush to be the Dawn Katsina. The Sumerians believed AK.U to be Beings of light. The Sanskrit word for sky, most preferably for the dawntime which is considered the most sacred time, is ‘Akash’. The Hopi name for the Pleaides is ChooChookam. The Sumerians believed SHU. SHU.KHEM were the supreme stars. Though Pleiades are significant to the Hopi people ethereal significance is given to the Great Bear or the Seven Sisters constellation. Hopi believe that they came to earth from one of the stars in the Great Bear in a big spaceship and the Vedic scriptures have detailed mythology regarding this constellation and the beings that reside there. The Hopi believe Pahana was the Lost Brother […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Cosmo Graphical Mapping by JOSEPH E. SCHWARTZBERG. The following article would start a conversation on a topic called as: INDO – ISLAMIC COSMOGRAPHY. The following article presents a number of ways Muslims have attempted to portray the cosmos The Islamic penetration of India commenced with the Arab conquest of Sind in A.D. 711-12. Thereafter, for more than a millennium, numerous Muslim dynasties ruled over large parts of the subcontinent. In most areas, however, Muslims formed a relatively small part of the total population. Given the duration of the Muslim presence and the strength of the indigenous culture, some conjoining of religious traditions was inevitable, and with it came the diffusion of cosmological concepts. Since author have not explored in depth the dissemination of cosmological ideas within and among the several faiths of India, the discussion of Indo-Islamic cosmography that follows is intended to do no more than mention a number of themes that, in author’s view, warrant further research. As far as author is aware, the earliest important instance of an Indian ruler’s adopting indigenous Indian artifacts as cosmological symbols dates from the reign of the powerful and ostensibly zealously anti-Hindu Tughluq monarch Flruz Shah. In the year 1360 he went to immense pains to dismantle and transport to his fort in Delhi three colossal monolithic pillars of the great Mauryan emperor Asoka. Although all three pillars were reerected there, only one, known as the Topra pillar, still stands at that site. All three appear to have been placed by Firuz. Two centuries after Flriiz, the mighty Mughal emperor Akbar (r. 1556-1605) also attempted, unsuccessfully, to transport to his intended but never-completed capital, Fathpur Sikri, another of the giant columns of Asoka. Akbar’s wide-ranging religious interests, his heretical religious practices, including sun worship, and in the years following 1575 his attempt to establish a new eclectic religious movement (later to be called the Din-i-llahi [Divine Faith]), which he hoped would unite all Indians, are well documented. “But far less is known,” observes Irwin, “about his interest in pillar worship and, in particular, his interest in cosmogonic myth, of which his socalled ‘sun-worship’ should be seen as a secondary aspect.” Another pillar that particularly fascinated Akbar was the pre-Asokan “bull pillar” at the sacred site of Allahabad (ancient Prayaga), at the confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna, and mythical Sarasvati rivers, which has been interpreted as the” ‘Place of Creation’… the mystical spot at which Heaven and Earth were initially separated…. [hence] the Navel of the Earth … [and] Center of the Universe.” Although Akbar did not attempt to transport this pillar to his capital, he did construct in the Diwan-i-Khass, the hall of audience at Fathpur Sikri, the central throne pillar that epitomizes in spirit the symbolic role of the axis mundi. In this, in the design of his thrones, and in other respects, Akbar sought to project himself as occupying the mystic center of the universe. Not surprisingly, therefore, one reads on the gateway to the gardens where his tomb was built the words: “These are the gardens of Eden, enter them to live for ever.” Gardens were often seen metaphorically in the Muslim world as a re-creation of Eden, widely regarded as the seventh and highest level of the Muslim paradise, or, more generally, of paradise as a whole. But for Akbar’s grandson Shah Jahan, gardens were arguably more than a mere metaphor. In an abundantly and meticulously documented article, Begley seeks to demonstrate that the monarch, in his overweening pride, saw himself as God’s agent on earth and the symbolic center of the world, and that he regarded the gardens he had built, especially that of his most sublime architectural monument the Taj Mahal, literally as re-creations-along with the Taj itself-of paradise. Each sector of the garden, he argues, each waterway and fountain, each gate, each basic component of the mausoleum and of the related buildings has its precise analogue in the textual representations of paradise and of the throne of God that form an important part of the Islamic religious tradition; and the calligraphy of the Taj complex, setting forth apposite suras of the Koran, reinforces that message.139 The cosmographic symbolism of the Islamic garden-and incidentally of the “garden rugs” into which the plans of gardens are woven-has been the focus of considerable literature, much of which Begley cites. In one particularly relevant essay, Schimmel observes that In his study of the Taj, Begley notes the existence of various Islamic graphic representations of the heavenly regions that support the correspondences he has pointed out. Although most of the plans are of Middle Eastern provenance, Begley reproduces one depiction of paradise from an early eighteenth-century Indian manuscript, at present in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. How many other such works may once have existed in India cannot be determined; but we know that Jahangir, the father of Shah Jahan, possessed a copy of an important manuscript containing a diagram of the Plain of Assembly, in which Begley sees a close “iconographic parallel to the Taj’s allegorical conception.” In the discussion of world maps in the chapter on South Asian geographical mapping below, author call attention to a substantial number of paintings in which Shah Jahan is portrayed either standing upon or holding a globe. In itself this would have no more cosmographic significance than do comparable paintings of Queen Elizabeth. But it is in order to point out here, as does Begley, that this exalted representation of the Mughal emperor was entirely in keeping with Shah Jahan’s inflated self-perception as the “vice-regent of God on earth” and, to employ the epithets of certain Sufi cosmological doctrines, “the embodiment of the Divine Pen,” the ” ‘Shadow’ of God’s essence,” the “Perfect Man.” Thus, as for Akbar, a part of his cosmological preoccupation was with the throne, the analogue of the Koranic Divine Throne, and it is not surprising that his no longer extant Peacock Throne in the Red Fort palace in Delhi […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Purusha Sukta by author Zachary F. Lansdowne Ph.D (who served as President of the Theosophical Society in Boston, has been a frequent contributor to The Esoteric Quarterly. His book The Revelation of Saint John, which provides a verse-by-verse analysis of the entire Revelation, was reviewed in the Fall 2006 issue). The Purusha Sukta is an ancient Hindu/Vedic hymn that celebrates the sacrifice of a God-like entity called “Purusha,” and it is still regularly chanted during Hindu worship. Modern scholars, however, find this hymn to be obscure. Author gives a theosophical interpretation, showing that Purusha corresponds to the concept of the Planetary Logos. The Rig Veda, the oldest text in Hinduism, is a collection of 1,028 Sanskrit hymns and is often dated between 1700–1100 BCE. The earliest version of the Purusha Sukta is in the Rig Veda, but subsequent versions of this hymn appear elsewhere with some modifications and redactions. It is one of the few hymns in the Rig Veda still being used in contemporary Hinduism, as reported by the President of the Ramakrishna Mission at Chennai, India: “This Sukta finds a place even today in the worship of a deity, in a temple or at home, in the daily parayana [chanting], in establishing the sacred fire for a Vedic ritual, in various rituals, and even in the cremation of a dead body.” According to the Hindu tradition, the Purusha Sukta was written down by an ancient scribe known as Narayana. Swami Krishnananda, the General Secretary of The Divine Life Society, reports on this somewhat mythical origin: “The Seer (Rishi) of the Sukta is Narayana, the greatest of sages ever known, who is rightly proclaimed in the Bhagavata [Purana] as the only person whose mind cannot be disturbed by desire and, as the Mahabharata says, whose power not even all the gods can ever imagine. Such is the Rishi to whom the Sukta was revealed and who gave expression to it as the hymn on the Supreme Purusha.” The Purusha Sukta is a small hymn, with sixteen verses, and is written in the oldest form of Sanskrit that has been preserved. Some of its words have multiple meanings, and some may have had meanings that were lost during the intervening years. Its language is ritualistic and may seem archaic. Moreover, this hymn may have a hidden, or esoteric, significance that was concealed behind its ritualistic language. For these reasons, modern scholars generally find the Purusha Sukta to be obscure. For example, John Muir refers to it as, “Another important, but in many places obscure, hymn of the Rig Veda.” Zenaide Ragozin writes, “The hymn, as a whole, is exceedingly obscure and of entirely mystical import.” One verse, which characterizes something as both the parent and progeny of something else, is called “a cryptogram” by Rein Fernhout. Another verse seems to describe a paradoxical situation in which a sacrifice has the same subject and object, so Steven Rosen asks, “Was the confusion that naturally bursts forth from this paradox meant to be like a Zen koan, a mystical riddle, or is it a product of the Vedas’ incomprehensibility?” On the other hand, Helena Blavatsky, cofounder of the Theosophical Society, states that this hymn has a coherent esoteric meaning: “It is those scholars only who will master the secret meaning of the Purushasukta, who may hope to understand how harmonious are its teachings and how corroborative of the Esoteric Doctrines. One must study in all the abstruseness of their metaphysical meaning the relations therein between the (Heavenly) Man ‘Purusha,’ sacrificed for the production of the Universe and all in it, and the terrestrial mortal man.” Blavatsky continues: “Hence in the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda, the mother fount and source of all subsequent religions, it is stated allegorically that ‘the thousand-headed Purusha’ was slaughtered at the foundation of the World, that from his remains the Universe might arise. This is nothing more nor less than the foundation—the seed, truly—of the later many-formed symbol in various religions, including Christianity, of the sacrificial lamb. For it is a play upon the words. ‘Aja’ (Purusha), ‘the unborn’ or eternal Spirit, means also ‘lamb’ in Sanskrit. Spirit disappears—dies, metaphorically—the more it gets involved in matter, and hence the sacrifice of the ‘unborn,’ or the ‘lamb.’” Blavatsky never published a detailed commentary on the Purusha Sukta. In fact, to our knowledge, the two paragraphs given above constitute most of her published comments on this hymn. Alice Bailey, a later theosophical author, wrote a great deal on subjects related to the Purusha Sukta but did not write anything explicitly about this hymn. In what follows, the English translation of each verse of the Purusha Sukta (as found in the Rig Veda) by Michael Myers, a Professor of the Philosophy of Religion, is given in bold, followed by an interpretation of that verse in italics showing that Purusha corresponds to the concept of the Planetary Logos. The subsequent theosophical commentary, including a detailed analysis of the symbols in the verse, is based primarily on the writings of Blavatsky and Bailey. Purusha: The first five verses provide us with a detailed description of the relationship between Purusha, or the Planetary Logos, and human beings. 1. Thousand-headed is Purusa, thousand eyed, thousand-footed. Having covered the earth on all sides, he stood above it the width of ten fingers. The Planetary Logos, whose body incorporates all human beings, expresses Himself through the planet Earth but transcends it. Sri V. Sundar provides a slightly different translation for the last phrase in the verse: “He stands beyond the count of ten fingers.” The ten fingers in this phrase are the fingers of human hands. Sundar explains this symbol: “They are the basis of count, of all mathematics, of all the logic and science built on mathematics. However, they are all limited when it comes to analyzing Purusha. He is transcendent, and beyond such limited understanding.” Who or what is Purusha (or Purusa) in this hymn? […]