The Poet and the Poetry in the Rigveda | 102 (Conclusion)
Mathomathis would like continue from the previous article. Users are advised to read the previous article, before proceeding further. In the following article we would like to start with Nature of Poetry. Righteous and truthful: According to the poets of the Ṛigveda, the first and the foremost characteristic of a good poetry is its being righteous and in accordance with the cosmic law or Ṛta and it should contain and…
Year 1985 – The AI Magazine – Equivalence Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence by Rick Brigs | RIACS, NASA Ames Research Centeu, Moffet Field, California 94305. The following article is a continuation from the previous article: Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence | 101 A comparison of the theories discussed in the previous article with the Indian theories of sentence analysis in the second section shows at once a few striking similarities. Both theories take extreme care to define minute details with which a language describes the relations between events in the natural world. In both instances, the analysis itself is a map of the relations between events in the universe described. In the case of the computer-oriented analysis, this mapping is a necessary prerequisite for making the speaker’s natural language digestible for the artificial processor; in the case of Sanskrit, the motivation is more elusive and probably has to do with an age-old Indo-Aryan preoccupation to discover the nature of the reality behind the the impressions we human beings receive through the operation of our sense organs. Be it as it may, it is a matter of surprise to discover that the outcome of both trends of thinking-so removed in time, space, and culture-have arrived at a representation of linguistic events that is not only theoretically equivalent but close in form as well. The one superficial difference is that the Indian tradition was on the whole, unfamiliar with the facility of diagrammatic representation, and attempted instead to formulate all abstract notions in grammatical sentences. In the following paragraphs a number of the parallelisms of the two analyses will be pointed out to illustrate the equivalence of the two systems. Consider the sentence: “John is going.” The Sanskrit paraphrase would be “An Act of going is taking place in which the Agent is ‘John’ specified by singularity and masculinity.” If we now turn to the analysis in semantic nets, the event portrayed by a set of triples is the following: 1. “going events, instance, go (this specific going event)” 2. “go, agent, John” 3. “go, time, present.” The first equivalence to be observed is that the basic framework for inference is the same. John must be a semantic primitive, or it must have a dictionary entry, or it must be further represented (i.e. “John, number, 1” etc.) if further processing requires more detail (e.g. “HOW many people are going?“). Similarly, in the Indian analysis, the detail required in one case is not necessarily required in another case, although it can bc produced on demand (ifneeded). The point to be made is that in both systems, an extensive degree of specification is crucial in understanding the real meaning of the sentence to the extent that it will allow inferences to be made about the facts not explicitly stated in the sentence The basic crux of the equivalence can be illustrated by a careful look at sentence “Out of friendship, Maitra cooks rice for Devadatta in a pot over a fire ” The semantic net is supplied in Figure 5 (below). The triples corresponding to the net are: cause, event, friendship friendship, objectl, Devadatta friendship, object2, Maitra cause, result cook cook, agent, Maitra cook, recipient, Devadatta cook, instrument, fire cook, object, rice cook, on-lot, pot. The sentence in the Indian analysis is rendered as follows: The Agent is represented by Maitra, the Object by “rice,” the Instrument by “fire,” the Recipient by “Devadatta,” the Point of Departure (or cause) by “friendship” (between Maitra and Devadatta), the Locality by “pot.” Since all of these syntactic structures represent actions auxiliary to the action “cook,” let us write cook” next to each karaka and its sentence representation: cook, agent, Maitra cook, object, rice cook, instrument, fire cook, recipient, Devadatta cook, because-of, friendship friendship, Maitra, Devadatta cook, locality, pot. The comparison of the analyses shows that the Sanskrit sentence when rendered into triples matches the analysis arrived at through the application of computer processing. That is surprising, because the form of the Sanskrit sentence is radically different from that of the English. For comparison, the Sanskrit sentence is given here: Maitrah: sauhardyat Devadattaya odanam ghate agnina pacati. Here the stem forms of the nouns are: Maitra-sauhardya-“friendship,” Devadatta -, odana- “gruel,” ghatu- “pot,” agni- “fire” and the verb stem is paca- “cook”. The deviations of the stem forms occurring at the end of each word represent the change dictated by the word’s semantic and syntactic position. It should also be noted that the Indian analysis calls for the specification of even a greater amount of grammatical and semantic detail: Maitra, Devadatta, the pot, and fire would all be said to be qualified by “singularity” and “masculinity” and the act of cooking can optionally be expanded into a number of successive perceivable activities. Also note that the phrase “over a fire” on the face of it sounds like a locative of the same form as “in a pot.” However, the context indicates that the prepositional phrase describes the instrument through which the heating of the rice takes place and, therefore, is best regarded as an instrument semantically. Of course, many versions of semantic nets have been proposed, some of which match the Indian system better than others do in terms of specific concepts and structure. The important point is that the same ideas are present in both traditions and that in the case of many proposed semantic net systems it is the Indian analysis which is more specific. A third important similarity between the two treatments of the sentence is its focal point which in both cases is the verb. The Sanskrit here is more specific by rendering the activity as a “going-event”, rather than “going.” This procedure introduces a new necessary level of abstraction, for in order to keep the analysis properly structured, the focal point ought to be phrased: “there is an event taking place which is one of cooking,” rather than “there is cooking taking place”, in order for the […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Purusha Sukta by author Zachary F. Lansdowne Ph.D (who served as President of the Theosophical Society in Boston, has been a frequent contributor to The Esoteric Quarterly. His book The Revelation of Saint John, which provides a verse-by-verse analysis of the entire Revelation, was reviewed in the Fall 2006 issue). The following article is a continuation from the previous article The Purusha Sukta | Human Evolution | 103. Verses 15 and 16 would be presented in the following post. 15. Seven were his altar sticks, three times seven were the kindling bundles, when the gods, performing the sacrifice, bound the beast Purusha. Human beings, like their prototype, face seven inward initiations that are milestones for three interrelated schemes of evolution, are subject to various hierophants who administer these initiations, and remain prisoners of the planet until they complete them. This verse is applicable to either human beings or the Planetary Logos. First, let us consider its application to human beings. Initiations, which are mentioned in the commentary for the fifth verse, occur during inward ceremonies. Bailey writes, “This ceremony of initiation marks a point of attainment. It does not bring about attainment, as is so often the misconception. It simply marks the recognition by the watching Teachers of the race of a definite point in evolution reached by the pupil.” Thus, initiations could be thought of as milestones for the evolutionary journey of human beings. An altar stick burning with fire symbolizes an initiation ceremony that is taking place because, as Bailey says, “An initiation is a blaze of illumination.” In the verse, the seven altar sticks indicate that human beings face, or have as a prospect, seven initiations on their evolutionary journey. These altar sticks are not yet burning, indicating that the seven initiations do not take place at the beginning of the evolutionary journey but instead lie ahead. Bailey has the same time orientation when she writes, “There are five initiations ahead of the disciple, with two more ahead of the Master, making in all seven initiations.” After human beings undergo five initiations, they become a “Master,” which means that they have become a member of the spiritual kingdom and therefore a candidate for the two remaining initiations. The verse says, “three times seven were the kindling bundles.” Here, the phrase “three times seven” is the literal translation of the original Sanskrit words. Some translators carry out this multiplication and assume that the Sanskrit words denote the number “twentyone.” What else could the phrase “three times seven” mean? The number seven has a symbolic meaning in the Rig Veda, as Aurobindo explains: “The number seven plays an exceedingly important part in the Vedic system, as in most very ancient schools of thought. We find it recurring constantly—the seven delights … ; the seven flames, tongues or rays of Agni … ; the seven forms of the Thought-principle … ; the seven rivers … All these sets of seven depend, it seems to me, upon the Vedic classification of the fundamental principles, the tattvas, of existence … In the Veda, then, we find the number of the principles variously stated … But the full number ordinarily recognized is seven.” As in the sixth verse, “kindling” symbolizes the limitations that support the continuation of the evolutionary process. If we regard the number seven as a symbol of completion, then seven “kindling bundles” symbolize a complete scheme of evolution; so three sets of seven kindling bundles symbolize three complete schemes of evolution. These multiple schemes of evolution must refer to different vehicles of consciousness because more than one scheme cannot be associated with the same vehicle. These schemes must be interrelated because they have common milestones. What might these schemes be? Blavatsky writes, “It now becomes plain that there exists in Nature a triple evolutionary scheme … or rather three separate schemes of evolution, which in our system are inextricably interwoven and interblended at every point. These are the Monadic (or spiritual), the intellectual, and the physical evolution.” The word hierophant comes from the Greek word (hierophantes) that means “one who shows sacred things.” It was the title of the chief priest at the Eleusinian Mysteries, which were outward initiation ceremonies held in ancient Greece. Bailey uses this title to denote the chief officer at an inward initiation ceremony and says that the identity of this officer depends upon the initiation being taken. For example, she writes, “At the seventh initiation … the Logos of our scheme on His own plane, becomes the Hierophant,” which means that the Planetary Logos Himself administers the seventh initiation. A human being is a prisoner of the planet, but, as Bailey explains, such a prison house enables evolution to occur: “Into the prison house of form enter all that live; some enter consciously and some unconsciously, and this we call birth, appearance, incarnation, manifestation … This produces therefore in the world field of awareness a gradual and slow growth towards self expression, self-appreciation, and self realization… Finally the time arrives when the Principle of Liberation becomes active and a transition is effected out of a prison house that cramps and distorts into one that provides adequate conditions for the next development of consciousness.” The symbols in the above verse also apply to the Planetary Logos because Bailey states: “Our Planetary Logos has for objective seven initiations.”36 Bailey goes on to say that “the cycles in the evolutionary process of all these Entities [a Solar Logos, a Planetary Logos, and a human being] may be divided mainly into three groups” and that “the ‘prisoners of the planet’ … [include] the Planetary Logos.” Further, she states that the hierophant is “a Cosmic Logos in the initiations of a Solar Logos, and of the three major Planetary Logo,” and is “a Solar Logos in the initiations of a Planetary Logos.” Here, “Cosmic Logos” denotes a composite Life who is even greater than the Solar Logos. 16. The gods sacrificed […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Super Brain Yoga By Dr. Ramesh MDS. As Master Choa Kok Sui says,~the Body is a living battery that requires constant recharging. This is done through different means, especially through the transference of Life Energy. One of the simplified techniques is MCKS Superbrain Yoga which energizes and activates the Brain. Superbrain Yoga gradually awakens the latent powers within us while involving internal alchemy. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN The Human Brain has the following parts. Cerebrum: The cerebrum, which does the functions like, thinking, learning, creativity, five senses, memory, emotion, problem solving, and decision making. Cerebellum: The cerebellum, receives messages from most of the muscles in our body. Then it communicates with other parts of the brain and then sends messages about movement and balance, back to our body. Brain Stem, consists of Pons, Medulla Oblongata: The brain stem, which regulates the heart rate, breathing, swallowing, blinking, digesting and more, it controls the basic functions of the brain. The right and left hemispheres of the brain appear to produce different brain functions. The left hemisphere is active in linear, logical, practical, rational and time oriented activities. The right hemisphere seems to be much more spatial, creative, analogical, holistic and non-logical The brain, a masterpiece of universe creation and has an inherent electrical potential, which is generated within itself and distributed throughout the Body METHODS OF STUDYING THE BRAIN FUNCTION Activities of the brain can be studied through the use of X-Rays EEG (Electro-encephalogram) CT scans (Computerized Tomography) MM Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) PET scans (Positron Emission Tomography) BRAIN WAVES:- The electrical potential generated by the brain is measured by specialized equipment called “Electro-encephalograph”. The EEG shows four types of patterns which are called the “Brain Waves”. These waves are rhythmic in nature. They occur independently on each side of the brain. In certain instances, both sides of the brain waves are in synchronization. SYNCHRONIZATION OF BRAIN WAVES:- During meditation and deep relaxation, the left and right brain wave patterns happen together. Scientists now believe that Synchronization makes: Much more brain power available Learning large amounts of information very quick High Creativity Self Control over all emotions THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF BRAIN WAVES: Beta Waves Alpha Waves Theta Waves Delta Waves Beta Waves, which occurs at a frequency of 13 to 25 cycles per second. It is mainly seen in intense mental activity like, talking. speaking, doing work, solving problems, etc. It is also seen during tension. Alpha Waves, which occurs at a frequency of 8 to 12 cycles per second, It is a state of quiet and resting alertness, It also indicates relaxation, These waves forms at the diffuse Thalamo-cortical System in the Mid-Brain, Mostly these areas have the functions of learning, memory, consciousness and abstract thinking, etc, Most intensely recorded in the occipital region of the brain. Theta Waves, which occurs at a frequency of 4 to 8 cycles per second. It is commonly seen in young children During emotional stress in adults, particularly during disappointment and frustration, It occurs in many brain disorders, Most frequently recorded over the parietal & temporal regions of the brain, Delta Waves, which occurs at the frequency of 0.5 to 4 cycles per second, It is a state of deep sleep. It is also seen in very serious organic brain diseases. It strictly occurs in the cortex region of the brain. BENEFITS OF ALPHA WAVES The Benefits of alpha waved are quite extensive in nature, if more Alpha waves are generated, then:- There is a relaxed concentrated state of mind which makes a person ore alert. There is a synchronization of the right & Left sides of the brain. An increase in Alpha waves helps relieve anxiety and reduces stress related disorders. It strengthens the immune System, thereby improves the ability of the body to heal faster. This is effective for reprogramming our inner conscious levels. It is a state of high Creativity, which leads to peak performance. BRAIN MAPPINGS:- Using EEG Machine Kit (a Brain-view Plus Windows based Digital Electro~encephalograph)* and its associated software program, the Brain waves can be assessed in eight different ways, depending on the parameters that need to be studied or analyzed. Brain Waves Single Amplitude Map Tn Map Frequency Map Frequency Spectrum Progressive Amplitude Map Progressive Frequency Map Frequency Tabular Analysis EEG:- The procedure of recording Brain Waves is done by attaching about 20 electrodes to the scalp of the patient. Microvolt level EEG signals are amplified with an analogue amplification device to volt level. It is collected by the computer. The recorded signals may be displayed on the screen, It can be printed on paper or stored on the computer and used for archival purposes later. The resulting traces are known as “Electro-encephalogram” or Brain Waves. CLINICAL TRIALS, Pilot Studies Study 1:- Tells about the comparative age-wise brain activity in normal subjects In this study we have compared the age-wise Brain activity of the young age, middle age and old age of normal individuals, As you see in this histogram, as age advances there is a marked reduction in the Alpha waves. This is a normal phenomenon. We also observe that Beta Waves become less active as age advances, This may be due to less intellectual activity and alertness, There is a generalized, diffuse slowing down of wave pattern at the older age. This slowing of waves occurs due to brain shrinkage, neuronal loss and nerve degeneration, etc. Study 2:- Tells about the comparative effect of Superbrain Yoga in a Control subject (a person who is totally not aware of the Superbrain Yoga Exercise) and a regular practitioner, who practices the Superbrain Yoga regularly for about one year without fail. This is a comparative study of Alpha wave activity through. Super – Brain Yoga, between a regular practitioner and a non-practitioner (control subject). Observe there is a uniform increase in Alpha wave activity throughout the Brain in this Frequency map program. Alpha wave activity especially in […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Glimpse Of Vedic Geometry by Prof. K.V.Krishna Murthy. He becomes richer by adding the finer qualities of both Lakshmi and Saraswathi to himself. His bad qualities have been subtracted from him by the kind look of Shiva. Since his good qualities have increased, admirations from others have multiplied for him. He divides the hearts of scholars and keeps them with him. i.e., all these scholars appreciate him. These are the achievements of good-hearted person, who churned the ocean of mathematics and he excels all scholars. This is a verse by the author in praise of Mathematics and Mathematicians. Since Mathematics is none other than the logic, wherever and whenever Mathematical sciences advance, the growth of Physical sciences follows. This is a fact established by history. In order to assess the state of scientific development of any country at a given time, generally it may be adequate to study the state of mathematics of the time. We can infer the state of other sciences from that. Just as Mathematics, is for Physical sciences, so is logic for philosophical knowledge. Wherever logic develops, math too flourishes there. In fact, there is only one difference between math and logic. Logic is expressed in the local language, whereas math is expressed in numbers and lines. Ancient Indians, who had a spectrum of sciences for their credit, valued mathematics with the same reverence. Here is an evidence for this, form a work called Vedanga Jhyotisha, which belongs to a period older than 1200 B.C Just as the natural feather on the head of a peacock and just as gems on the head of a divine serpent, Jyotisha – the science of astronomy is placed on the head of the other sastras – so says the well known Vedanga Jyotisha. In Bhagavad Gita the lord says:- is the meaning given by Sri Sankaracharya. कलनं संकलनं व्य्वकलनं are the basic forms of गणनं संकलनं . Means addition, व्य्वकलनं means subtraction. Simplified addition is multiplication and simplified subtraction is division. Whatever may be the extent of development, mathematics can never go beyond these four operations, to be more precise, beyond these two operations. Hence, we can easily infer that Kaala and Ganita are not different from each other. Jyotisha is the science of Kaala. Hence, Jyotisha and Ganita can not be different. Hence we can write: Time = Astronomy = Mathematics. But you can ask one question. Time is represented by numbers, where as jyotisha deals with geometrical figures. Then, how can these two be equal? When these two are not equal, how can we say Time = Astronomy = Mathematics. The question may be correct only to some extent. Astronomy is the science of time and so, some may not like to say that time = Astronomy even then, they cannot deny the equations. This is because, mathematics is a science in which there are two important and unseperable branches, viz., Mathematics of numbers Mathematics of space. The maths of time deals with numbers and the maths of space deals with lines, whether straight or curved. Since time and space are inseparable, you can not separate these two branches of mathematics. Since the most ancient and the most modern concepts accept that, in the ultimate, time and space are not different, these two branches of mathematics also cant be different, of course , in the ultimate. The “ultimate” is thoroughly discussed in the Vedas from different angles and hence, the Veda had to deal with the numbers, the space and the mathematics which embodies both of them. Stray numbers can be used and utilized by even primitive societies, but numbers as a system can be utilized only by a developed society. In fact, history proves to us that, in any period of time, where the numbers are used in a more systematic way, the better is the civilization of that society as a whole. Even though we are not exactly sure of what a Vedic period is, whatever it may be, we can estimate its civilization basing on the number systems available in the Vedas. Pythagoras, the celebrated philosopher and mathematician of 3rd century B.C, tried to evolve a numbering system, to count the particles of a sand in a given jar of sand and wrote his thesis – “The calculus of sand”. But, unfortunately, he could not develop a perfect decimal system of numbers, because he could not think of “Zero” at that time. But thousands of years before that, we find a full-fledged decimal system of numbers in the Veda mantras: Which gives the values of 100 to 1012. Please note that the value of 100 is given as “1” in the sequence. This is not a rare or strange reference from Veda. “ Oh Lord Agni! Prostrations to you once, twice, thrice, four times five times, ten times, hundred times upto thousand times and unlimited number of times”. Here we find a definite pattern of progression of numbers. In the well known Chamakadhyaya of Krishna Yajurveda, the mantra gives two sequences of numbers 2 VIZ., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31 And 4, 8,12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48. The first one is a sequence of odd numbers from 1 to 31 for the second one is not a sequence of simple even numbers. We can observe that these sequences follow the formula. xn + xn+1 = y1; x being the member of the 1st sequence and Y , of the 2nd sequence. Eg: 1 + 3 = 4; 3+5=8 upto the 12th place. Thus we find an intricate and perfect systematic use of numbers in the Vedas. Added to this, perfect discretions of cosmological events are found in the Vedas. The famous Nakshatreti Prakarana of Yajurveda, the cosmological details given in Rigveda, are more than enough to prove this. As we entered the post Vedic Ancient Literature, there are four important places, where […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Iyaarappan is Harappan by author T.L.Subash Chandira Bose, Anitha Kumar and M.Pandurangan. In Ancient Indian subcontinent, there were two regions at where five rivers flow. One is in North-West region and other one is in South-East region. In ancient time, it is said to be that there was a river called Saraswathi flowing in the North-West region which might have got dried up due to heavy deposition of sediments of sand or natural calamities. The five rivers flowing in North-West region are Indus, Jhelum-Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. These five rivers begin their journey from Mount Himalayas, flow towards South – West and finally join together as one and became Sind/Indus River. It drains in Arabian ocean (Sindu Sagar). The name of the North-West region where those five rivers flow is called ‘Panjanadha. The five rivers flowing in South-East region are Cauvery, Vadavaaru, Vennaaru, Vettaaru and Kudamurutiyaara. The mother of these five rivers is Cauvery which begins its journey from Western hills Gudaku or Kudagam, flows toward East and drain in Bay of Bengal (Kalinga Sagar). The name of South -Eastern region at where these five rivers flow is ‘Panjanadhi’. An Indo-Greeks map of 100 century B.C.E, shows the location of ‘Panchanada(m)’. In which the letter ‘Cha’ has to be read as ‘Ja’ (Thanks to the kind heart for publishing the map). This name which is at least as old as the Mahabhasya of Patanjali 200 B.C., is still preserved in the (maintained with the) designation Panjanad given to the united streams”. Panjanadham and Panjanadhi: The words ‘Panjanadham’ and ‘Panjanadhi’ are to be divided into two as ‘Panja + nadham’ and ‘Panja + nadhi’ respectively. The common word is ‘Panja’. In Thamizh language, Panja is numerical number five ‘Ayinthu’ in short the letter ‘I’. ‘I’ is the ninth life letter in Thamizh alphabet. Also the common word for both ‘Nadham and Nadhi is ‘Aaru (river)’. Hence the common word for both ‘Panjanadham and Panjanathi is ‘(I+aaru) Iyaaru’ The name Iyaaru (five rivers) became as (Panja+ Appu) Panjaappu (five water) and presently the region is called as Punjab province. (Appu means water in Thamizh) Panjanatheeswaran or Iyaarappan: The South-East region particularly in TN where five rivers (Iyaaru) flow is considered as a sacred region. It is identified by affixing the respecting Thamizh word ‘Thiru’. It is (Thiru + Iyaaru) ‘Thiru(va)iyaaru’. In this sacred place, there is a ‘Panchanatheeswarar temple’ with two shrines viz., ‘Southern Kailalayam and Northern Kailalayam’, dedicated to Lord Siva. The names of Lord Siva and his consort in these shrines are “Thiru Panchanatheeswaran and Thiru Aram Valartha Nayaki”. The ‘Panchanatheeswarar temple’ is popularly known as Iyaarappan temple. The names ‘Easwar, Easwarar and Easwaran’ are the names used to address Lord Siva. In Thamizh, the word “Appa” means father, but “Appan” means Great father or Lord (Perumaan). The name “Appan” is mostly used by the devotees to praise Lord Siva with full of love and devotion (Anburai). Hence (Iyaaru + appan) Iyaaruappan or Iyaarappan is the name of Lord Siva. In Panniru Thirumurai, particularly in Thiruvaiyaaru Sthalapuranam poems 2456 – 2459, praise the Lord Siva as Iyaatrupperumaane, Iyaaraane. Iyaarappan is Harappan: May be during the unknown period of time and due to some other reasons the letter ‘Iyaa’ had pronounced as ‘Ha’, letter ‘a’ became silent and the name ‘Iyaarappan was spelled as Harappan’ and its society as ‘Harappan Society’. In 1940, an archaeologist Sir M.S. Vats discovered three numbers of Shiva Lingams at Harappan region which are said to be 5,000 years old. This evidence proves that Lord Siva worship had prevailed among the Iyaarappan/Harappan society. From the above we can come to a conclusion that the names ‘Harappa and Harappan’ might have been arrived from the Thamizh names ‘Iyaarappa and Iyaarappan’- Father of five rivers who is Lord Siva.