OJAS | The Vital Nectar Of life
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: OJAS – The Vital Nectar of life presented by authors || A. B. Bagde || Sawant R. S. || Yanpallewar S. U || Nikumbh M. B. || Dhimdhime R. S. An Article in Journal of Biological and Scientific Opinion · April 2014 | Bagde A. B et al. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion · Volume 2 (2). 2014. According to Ayurveda,…
A Bird’s Eye View of DHATU SAMYATA | Review Article
Mathomathis would like to present an article on A Bird’s Eye View of DHATU SAMYATA | Review Article by Singh Ravinder Kumar et al / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (4), 2017 | DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.084226 The term Dhatu Samyata is regarded as health (Arogyata) as described in Charaka Samhita. Commonly the term Dhatu is applied for Sapta Dhatus i.e. Rasa Dhatu, Rakta Dhatu etc. Dhatu term has broad meaning….
In the following article, Mathomathis would like to present the technical aspects of the Gotra system followed in the vedic tradition. In Vedanta dharma, the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. However, all families having same gotra need not be cousins. They can be descendants of sons or disciples or even adopted sons of the Rishi(Seer), who is the root and whose name is used as Gotra. For example if a person says that he belongs to the Kutsa Gotra then it means that he traces back his male ancestry to the ancient Rishi (Saint or Seer) Kutsa. Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Paini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. This system was started among Brahmins, with a purpose to classify and identify the families in the community. Vedic/vedanata Brahmins identify their male lineage by considering themselves to be the descendants of the 8 great Rishis i.e Saptarishis (The Seven Sacred Saints) + Bharadwaja Rishi. So the list of root Brahmin Gotras is as follows : Angirasa Atri Gautam Kashyapa Bhrigu Vasistha Kutsa Bharadwaja The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called as gotravayava. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras (especially of the Brahmins) have evolved. For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras.In almost all Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited, since people with same gotra are considered to be siblings. But the hidden reason behind this practice is the ‘Y’ Chromosome which is expected to be common among all male in same gotra. So, the woman too carries similar ‘X’ Chromosome and if married, their offspring may be born with birth defects. Few families even maintain their Pravara which is a list of all seers through which their Gotra was derived. It connects to the root Seer. Gotra is always passed on from father to children among most Hindus, just like lastname(surname) is passed on worldwide. However, among Malayalis and Tulu’s its passed on from mother to children. Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches. Now, why only male carries fixed lastname and gotra and why female can change her last name, gotra after marriage? Genes and Chromosomes Among Humans Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father. Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person. When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother. So the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage (Father – Son – Grandson etc) because a Son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter etc) because it comes from both father and mother. A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover). On the other hand, a Son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes. Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily. If a person belongs to Angirasa Gotra then it means that his Y Chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years of timespan from the Rishi Angirasa. And if a person belongs to a Gotra (say Bharadwaja) with Pravaras (Angirasa, Bhaarhaspatya, Bharadwaja), then it means that the person’s Y Chromosome came all the way down from Angirasa to Bhaarhaspatya to Bharadwaja to the person. This also makes it clear why females are said to belong to the Gotra of their husbands after marriage. That is because women do not carry Y Chromosome, and their Sons will carry the Y Chromosome of the Father and hence the Gotra of a woman is said to be that of her husband after marriage. Y is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes […]
The article Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law | 103 is a continuation from the article Yajnavalkya Smriti | Vyavahara Law | 102. Readers are advised to read the previous article before proceeding further. Balakrida of Visvarupa: This commentary was first published in two parts in 1921-22 by Mahamahopadhyaya T. Ganapati Sastri in Trivandrum Sanskrit Series. Further it is published in a single Volume from Munshiram Manoharlal in 1982. Scholars like T. Ganapathi Sastri and K. A. Nilakandha Sastri hold the view that Visvarupa, the author of Balakrida and Suresvara, the disciple of Sri Sankara were one and identical. After a detailed discussion on this matter, P.V. Kane says that Visvarupa was the name of Suresvara in his life before becoming a Sanyasin and his date can be assigned between 800 – 825 AD. Taking into consideration his remarks on Vaisvadeva ceremony Kane remarks that this author can be considered as an inhabitant of Malava, the present Malwa. In the introduction of his famous commentary Mitaksara Vijiianesvara refers to Visvarupa’s commentary as a voluminous expansion of the verses of Yajnavalkya: This is true in the case of the Acara and Prayascitta sections. But as regards the Vyavahara section, the commentary is extremely feeble in form. The simplicity of style and the multitude of works and authors cited in it make the work much noteworthy. Quotations from Vedic texts like Samhitas, Brahmanas and Upanishads, various Smrti works and Arthasastra texts prove the versatile scholarship of the author. He refers to more than 30 Smrtikaras and frequently quotes passages from Manu, Vasistha and Narada. He has also referred to the Artha-Shastras of Brihaspati and Visalaksa but Kautilya is not at all mentioned anywhere. P.V.Kane says that though he was a past-master in Purvamimamsa lore, his philosophical views seems to have been identical with those of Sankara T. Ganapti Sastri is of opinion that five commentaries of Balakrida existed and certain fragmentary portions of two of them are available now. The first one, which does not mention its author’s name, is known as Vacanamala. The second one, which comprises only the introductory portion in 5500 verses, mentions neither its name nor that of its author. Vacanamala refers to other three commentaries named as Vibhavana, Tika and Amrtasyandini: The emergence of these five commentaries on Balakrada is a clear evidence to the fact that the same was regarded with great importance by later scholars. Yajnavalkiya Dharmashastra Nibhandhana of Apararka This has been published in two volumes from Anandasrama press, Pune in 1903 and 1904 No. 45 and 46. In the colophons of his commentary, Apararka introduces himself as a Silahara king born in the family of Jimutavahana, the legendary hero of Nagananda: There were the feudatories called Silaharas in Konkan region in South India and according to K.A. Nilakandha Sastri, this Apararka or Aparaditya-1 might have flourished during the first half of 12 century A.D. Apararka has also authored a commentary on Nyayasara of Bhasarvajna. Apararka’s Dhannasastranibandha, as the name implies is an independent digest rather than a commentary. It is enriched with frequent quotations from various Dharmasutras, Grihya Sutras and metrical Smritis. He has quoted passages from ten Dharmasutras and has mentioned twelve Smrtikaras with the prefix ‘Vrddha’. Quotations from Smrti works Like Laghu-Yama, Laghu-Vishnu, Brahat-Yama and Brahat-Vishnu are seen constantly in this text. Long extracts extending to hundreds of verses from a number of Puranas, about 22 seem to be a peculiar feature of this commentary. Thus the abundance of quotations makes this work in mere extent nearly double to Mitaksara. Another notable peculiarity of this work is that the author has not at all mentioned the name of any of the Nibandhakaras who were earlier to him. It is also to be noted here that though the work was produced in the Konkan region in South India, it has got acceptance of high authority in Kashmir. The Srikanthacarita of Mahkha states that Aparaditya sent a veteran judicial scholar named Tejakantha from South to attend a conference at Kashmir which was conducted by the king Jayasirnha and this may be the reason for the popularity of the text of Apararka in kashmir. This work has got recognition in Banaras sub-division. Visvesvarabhatta, the author of Subodhini commentary to Mitaksara, has relied upon this work as supreme authority. Certain views which are generally associated with Jimutavahana, the founder of Dayabhaga system, were propounded by Apararka also. Dipakalika of Sulapani Sulapani is one of the foremost among the Nibandhakaras of Bengal and was regarded as an eminent jurist, next only to Jimutavahana. He was a Brahmin from Vanga territory. P.V.Kane assigns him between A.D.I375 and 1460. Raghunandana, the author of Dayatattva always refers to Sulapani as Upadhyaya or Mahamahopadhyaya. His commentary on YS is known for its brevity and good style. This work is taken as an authority, especially in respect of matters on which other works are silent. Several important works like Viramitrodaya and Astavimsatitattva refer to this work as an authority. This commentary is published by Mr. Ghorpure in 1939 in his series of Hindu Law Texts. Apart from this, Sulapani has written so many independent treatises also. Fourteen of them are designed as ending Viveka among which PrayasciCtaviveka, Sraddhaviveka, Smrtiviveka and Dattakaviveka are important. Viramitrodayavyakhya of Mitramisra Mitramisra seems to be the last among the outstanding and authoritative commentators on Hindu law. He has written a vast digest called Viramitrodaya with 22 Prakasas embracing all branches of Dharmasastra. His commentary on YS is known as Viramitrodayavyakhya or Yajiiavalkyasmrtitika. Some scholars assign him to the earliest part of 17^ century A.D. But there is a reference made by Mitramisra himself about his date in his another work, Anandacampu, which is as follows: Here, according to the Bhutasankhya calculation, the word and so the above passage shows that Mitramisra composed his Campu work in the Saka year 1690 which corresponds to 1768 of Christian era. So he can be assigned in the middle of 18th century A.D. This commentary is accepted as an authority […]
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 102 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 101) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. “The strength of Communism is not in the validity of dialectical materialism, not in its armies and collectives, not even in Sputniks. It lies in its intellectuals who, intensively indoctrinated for two generations, have but one mission in life; to fulfill what they consider to be the predestined role of Soviet Russia in communizing the world and dominating it. The fundamental problem of the world therefore is whether what is called the ‘Free World’ can produce a matching sense of mission……….. “This sense is perhaps at its white heat in little Israel. Men and women come there from different parts of the world. Often they do not know any common language. Israel itself is suspended precariously over the mouth of a volcano—Arab hatred. And yet they are convinced that this little patch of a desert is their ‘Promised Land’; that their race is pre-destined to an honored place among the nations. Their passionate faith in the Jewish nation therefore is a burning flame welding them together. It drives them to perform the superhuman task of making ancient Hebrew a modern bond of unity and face the potential disasters with the indomitable calmness of a God-inspired mystic. “During the last hundred years when we were struggling for freedom, the dominant minority of India had developed a sense of mission. We believed in our right to be true to our own culture; in our duty to suffer and, if need be, die for freedom; in our destiny to be free in order that, with the aid of our spiritual heritage, we could redeem mankind. “If our sense of mission weakens,—as it has been of late-that is, if we cease to be true to ourselves and our culture; we lose confidence that we have a great role to play in history; if we come to look upon ourselves as a miserable, weak and poor people with no pride in our past and no faith in our future—our outlook will cease to be positive. Frustration, disappointment or despair will seize us. Disintegration will follow. “However, the Indian mind through the ages had a deep sense of mission, and sooner than we realise, the younger generation will recapture it. “Take the second condition. If a large section of the dominant minority prefers caste, region, linguism or religion as the object of paramount loyalty, the will to unity will be fragmented. In all countries, most people who constitute the dominant minority have a variety of loyalties; loyalty to one’s family, to one’s caste or class, to one’s region or language, to one’s religion and to one’s nation. In a properly inter-related scheme of loyalties, the loyalty to the nation should dominate all other loyalties. That has been so in Germany and Japan, and that is the cause of their rise even after their catastrophic collapse in World War II.. “The process going on in our country for the moment deserves serious attention. In the past, the Hindus had a superior loyalty to their religion, to Aryavarta—the Karma Bhoomi—in which they were born. But this group loyalty is being displaced by Indian nationalism and almost in the hour of victory, it, as well as the new nationalism, are being undermined by loyalty to the caste or the region. Prophets of disintegration are talking about nationalities in India, not the Indian nation. In search of regional selfishness we are also apt to forget our paramount loyalty to the country as a whole. “A pessimist would think that we are reverting to the pre-Akbar period, when region warred with region and all of them opened the gates to slavery. However, this is a passing phase; but it will pass only if the fundamental devotion of the average Indian to the Motherland is so strengthened that it will sweep away the caste or regional loyalties. We will have to go through distressing trials if this does not happen in the immediate future. “The third condition arises from an impact of a conquering culture upon another. It raises no problems in USA and the countries of Europe, for there basically the outlook of the dominating minority and the masses is the same, for the leaders have drawn inspiration from the soil. “In India and in several countries in Asia, however, the outlook of the dominant minority which has grown up under the influence of an alien culture tends to differ from that of the masses. As a result, the minority is no longer emotionally responsive to the urges which characterise them, as it speaks, thinks and acts under the influence of an alien outlook; the masses also do not f eel a sense of identity with it. Once this situation arises, the dominant minority, however active, is looked upon as alien and the will to unity becomes weak. “In the pre-Gandhian period, to take our own case, the English-educated minority was Westernised in thought and outlook and the leaders often found it difficult to think in terms of the urges of the masses. Gandhiji could establish a complete identity between the minority and the people, because in this fundamental outlook he was one with them. He was to them not a Westernised political leader, but the sage, the saint and the savior, of whom they had dreamt throughout the ages. “It was expected that, after freedom, our dominant minority, following the Gandhian lead, would maintain this sense of identity with the Indian masses. Unfortunately, a new class has sprung up […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Empowered Women – The Vedic Path by Nandita Das, Received : 20.08.17; Peer Reviewed : 14.09.17; Accepted : 26.09.17. The empowerment of women is a very relevant question of our time which has its own share of multiple ramifications and controversies. Though the term empowerment is a fairly modern term, it has a number of very strong precedents in oriental traditionalism. The term itself is a descendant of the word ‘Power’ which in the Indian context is synonymous with the word ‘Shakti’. In the philosophy of Hinduism, Shakti ( in Sanskrit the word shak denotes “to be able”), is also spelled as ‘Sakthi’, which means “power” or “empowerment” is also the primordial cosmic energy and it also represents the forces of dynamism that are thought to be moving through the entire universe and its parallel corollaries. Shakti is the conceptualisation and the personification of the divine creative power that resides in femininity, and is referred to as ‘The Great Divine Mother’ in Hindu scriptures. As the mother of the universe she is known as the “AdiParashakti” or “Adishakti”. Put on the earthly and everyday plane, the concept of Shakti most actively manifests through the female embodiment of ideas and in the creativity/fertility of the everyday woman, though it also manifests its presence in males in its potential form which is paradoxically “unmanifest”, as the ancient wisdom would have it. “YatraNariAstuPujyante, RamanteTatraDevataa” “The Gods reside in places where woman is worshiped” – Manu Smriti The ancient Indian society had always placed women in a very significant position. Ancient scriptures suggest the fact that they were superior to men in a number of aspects. There are numerous literary evidences that suggest that woman had obtained powers which could have destroyed great kingdoms and mighty rulers. The sagacious Veda Vyasa (An ancient vedic seer / rishi) in Mahabharata has written how the Kaurava kingdom fell because of their humiliation of Draupadi, the beloved wife of Pandavas. Ramyana-Valmiki depicts the dejected state of Ravana for abducting Sita with brute force. The worship of Goddesses in the ancient period was initiated to inspire the public and the populace to respect women unequivocally. In the Vedic society women were active participants in numerous religious ceremonies and assemblies. There is no evidence that suggest the isolation of women in Vedic period in domestic or social spheres , but their dependence on their male relations throughout their lives was steeped with affection and mutual respect. There were eminent women like Maitreyee, Gargi, Lopamudra, Ghosha, and Indrani who were learned and erudite souls and they have put forth their thoughts and learning in the Upanishads. Women in the Vedic era had the opportunity to choose their husband through a type of marriage called the Swayamvara. The laws of this type of marriage stated that the eligible grooms should assemble at the bride’s place and the bride will select her man through tests of merit. Many such examples abound in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. This tradition continued even in the later period in a number of royal families. Swayamvara is the one of the most scientific rituals ever devised for a woman which could give her control over one of the major decisions of her life. The lower status of women in the Vedic Period is just one of the uneducated myths about ancient India. A number of statements given below show the proof of a totally different mindset and culture: “O bride! May the knowledge of the Vedas be in front of you and behind you, inS your center and in your ends. May you conduct your life after attaining the knowledge of the Vedas. May you be benevolent, the harbinger of good fortune and health and live in great dignity and indeed be illumined in your husband’s home.” – Atharva Veda 14-1-64. Women are worthy of worship. They are the fate of the household, the lamp of enlightenment for all in the household. They bring solace to the family and are an integral part of Dharmic life. Even heaven was under the control of women. The Gods reside in those households where women are worshipped and in households where women are slighted all efforts at improvement go in vain.” – Manusmriti 3-56 “The wife should do Agnihotra (yagna), Sandhyavandanam and all other daily religious rituals. If, for some reason, her husband is not present, the woman alone has full rights to do yagna.” – Rigveda Samhita, part 1, sukta 79, sloka 872. In ancient vedic times,women were classified as “Brahmavadini” and “Sadyovadhu”. Brahmavadini was a woman who studied the Vedas after the ritual of Yajnopavitamsanskara (sacred thread ceremony) and got married later or stayed a bachelor in further pursuit of the vedic knowledge. Sadyovadhu was a woman who got married immediately after her sacred thread ceremony. This has been clearly mentioned in the texts like Madhva Samhite on Parashara Smriti, and in the Harita Dharma Sutra, etc. There are some scholars who claim that Brahmavadini is just the term for the wife or a daughter of a male Rishi. But the texts define them as something totally different, and the very word Brahmavadini does not imply anything of that sort.The word actually implies a profound knowledge of the vedas and other sacred texts. Madhava Samhite on Parashara Smriti is of the opinion that : yopanayanamkrutwapashcadvivahamkarotisabrahmavadini| tathaivayaprathamataupanayanamkrutwasadyaevavivahamvidhayatatovedamadhitesasadyovadhuh… which translates into: “She who studies vedas after upanayana and then gets married is brahmavadini, she who gets married immediately after upanayana and then studies vedas is sadyovadhu”. The list given below is a numerical statement of the Female vedic scholars who empowered themselves in an erudite way: Author’s Conclusion: The empowerment of women in the vedic ages was definitely a matter of reality, not of myth. As a parallel conclusion we can certainly draw the inference that the empowering ways of these ancient Female Scholars are relevant even today.
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Vedic Epistemology | The Vedic Paradigm for the development of knowledge Para Vidya (Sciences of the material world) and aPara Vidya (Transcendental Sciences) Adhi Daivika represent Cosmic phenomena such as Meteorites, sun spots which cause a disruption in the planet; Adhi Bhautika encompass Terrestrial phenomena such as fire floods, landslides and Adhyatmika, are purely subjective traits such as inertia, lack of faith, insincerity and such , arise from our own negativities. The following article will present on Epistemology of the Dharmik tradition (Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature and validity of knowledge). Darshana: Vision, philosophical doctrine Pramana: Right Knowledge. There are several approaches to accumulating and fine tuning knowledge Pratyaksha: Direct perception, for example ocular proof Anumaana, अनुमान , inference Upamaana: Use of analogy,simile Shabdabodha ( शब्दबोध ): Cognition caused by an utterance based on Authoritative or scriptural testimony e,g, The Bhagavad Gita. Who determines whether a particular scripture is authoritative. Ultimately it is the individual. Arthapaati: (Postulate) Upapatti: Necessity of proof or demonstration Viparyaya: (Wrong knowledge or lack of discrimination) Vikalpa: (Fancy or Verbal delusion) Nidra: (sleep) Smriti: (Memory) The Shad-Dharshanas: The Shad-Dharshanas are six great works (Philosophical systems) that shed light on Indian Ethos, the way the Indic looks at the world, which many mistakenly consider to be based on blind belief. Explaining the Vedas explicitly, they share with the world the wisdom contained therein. The six texts are based on: The Veda, Non-belief and Inner Vision They explain incidents and events that pertain to all the three times of past, present and future. They have taught man how to do away with suffering, restlessness etc., and lead a good life by removing the dirt in him. They explicitly state that the Vedas, the Vedanta and the knower of Vedas are all one and the same. They explain the nature of the mind which is responsible for all Intelligence, intellect and discrimination. These six great Dharshanas (texts) are: Nyaaya, Vaisheshika, Saankhya, Yoga, Puurva-Mimaamsa and Utthara Mimaamsa. Valid knowledge and its means Valid knowledge (prama) is defined as that knowledge which has for its object something that is not already known and is uncontradicted (anadhigata-abaadhita arthavishayaka-jnaanam). The qualification ‘something that is not already known’ is meant to exclude recollection. The word ‘uncontradicted’ excludes illusion or error, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake. The Mimamsakas hold that time is also cognised through the organs of sense. Thus, when an object is seen, the cognition is connected with the moment when it is seen. As a result, when an object is seen continuously for several moments, the cognition at each moment is considered to be different from the cognition of the same object at the previous or next moment. In this view, the cognition at each moment is a new cognition and so the qualification ‘something that is not already known’ applies and the definition is applicable. According to Vedanta, however, a continuous cognition for several moments is one single cognition. The knowledge of a pot, for example, is Consciousness reflected in the mental modification (vritti) in the form of the pot and this is just one throughout the time the same pot continues to be seen. In this view also the definition applies. Objection: According to Advaita Vedanta, all objects such as pot are unreal, being ‘mithya’, and so the knowledge of the pot is contradicted and it cannot be valid knowledge. Answer: It is only after the realization of Brahman that the pot is contradicted. In the above definition, ‘uncontradicted’ means ‘not contradicted during the transmigratory state’. The following is adapted from Dattapeetham What is Nirvachana (definition)? For properly understanding a topic, we should be conversant with the correct definitions of the words we useIt was in this context that the question ‘what is Nirvachana?’ had come up. Nir-Vachana means, to elucidate appropriately and precisely. It means ‘to explain with the help of unambiguous terms what has to be explained’. In the present context of understanding Vedanta, we were trying to understand the phenomenon of the manifest world and the Knowledge of the Self. Understanding itself is Jnana (knowledge). Jnana: Jnana is of two types. 1. Yathaartha Jnana and 2. Ayathaartha Jnana. Yathaartha Janna means understanding an object as that of the literal object only. For example, in the example of rope snake, to understand a rope to be a rope is Yathaartha Janna. Wrongly understanding an object (to be something else) is Ayathaartha Janna. This is also called Asatya Jnana (false knowledge). In the analogy of rope and snake, assuming a piece of rope to be a snake is Ayathaartha Janna. Objection: When simple terms such as Satya Jnana and Asatya Jnana are available, why should difficult words (Yathaartha Jnana and Ayathaartha Jnana) be used? Reply: It is true that they are difficult terms. But they possess more clarity. There are two words Yatha + Artha (in the word Yathaartha). ‘To perceive an object as that very object’ is the meaning of these words. That is, to perceive a rope as rope is Yathaartha Jnana. Using the word Yathaartha, rather than Satya conveys this meaning better. Because the term is difficult, the men of wisdom have used another simpler word ‘Pramaa’ in place of Yathaartha. Pramaa means Yathaartha Jnana. Pramaa (True knowledge, accuracy of perception). Pramaa is of two types. 1. Smriti (remembrance) and 2. Anubhava (experience). Smriti is recollection of what has been experienced in the past. Anubhava is perceiving in the present. Anubhava comes from Pramanas (testimonies) such as Pratyaksha (direct perception). When the knowledge thus obtained with the help of Pramanas remains in the Antahkarana (inner instruments) as Samskara (latent impression) and after some time, due to some reason gets recollected, it becomes ‘Smriti). Therefore, it can be said with […]