Glimpse Of Vedic Geometry | Prof. K.V.Krishna Murthy
Mathomathis would like to present an article on Glimpse Of Vedic Geometry by Prof. K.V.Krishna Murthy. He becomes richer by adding the finer qualities of both Lakshmi and Saraswathi to himself. His bad qualities have been subtracted from him by the kind look of Shiva. Since his good qualities have increased, admirations from others have multiplied for him. He divides the hearts of scholars and keeps them with him. i.e.,…
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Indic Savants In The Computational Sciences From Antiquity 1 A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar 2 Acyuta Pisarati (c. 1550 CE-1621 CE) 3 Apastambha, author of Sulva Sutra, circa 2000 BCE 4 Aryabhata (476 CE – 550 CE.) 5 Aryabhata Ia (author of Aryabhata Siddhanta) 6 Aryabhata lb (author of Aryabhattiyum of Kusumapura) Born in Asmaka,, A1b = or not=A1a 7 Aryabhata II 8 Bakshali Manuscript 9 Baudhayana (fl. 700 B.C.E.) 10 Bhaskara I 11 Bhadrabahu 12 Bhartrihari, considered to be the father of semantics 13 Bhaskara (1114-c. 1185) 14 Bhaskara 1(629 CE of Vallabhi country) 15 Bhaskara II (Bhaskaracharya son of Maheshwara) 16 Bhattotpala of Kashmir (966 CE) 17 Bhutivesnu son of Devaraja, circa 14th century CE? 18 Bose 19 Brahmadeva 20 Brahmadeva son of Chandrabuddha 1092 ce 21 Brahmagupta (c. 598-c. 670) , son of Jisnugupta 22 Brihaddeshi 23 Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao 24 Cangadeva (fl. 1205) 25 Chandraprajnapati, ? 5”’ century BCE 26 Chandrasekhara Simha or Chandrasekhar Samanta (are they the same — yes)) 1835 CE 27 D. K. Ray-Chaudhuri 28 Damodara, son of Parameswara and guru of Nilakantha Somasutvan as well 29 Dasaballa (son of Vairochana) 1055 CE 30 Deva (Deva Acharya) 31 Gaargeya 32 Ganesha Daivajna I (1505 CE son of Lakshmi and Kesava)) 33 Ganesha Daivajnya II (great grandson of Ganesha Daivajnya 1(1600 CE) 34 Gangadhara 35 Gangesha Upadhyaya 36 Ghatigopa 37 Govinda Bhatta 38 Govindaswami (c. 800-850) 39 Halayudha (fl. 975) 40 Haridatta (circa 850 CE) 41 Harish-Chandra 42 Hemachandra Suri (b. 1089) 43 Hemcha n dra 44 Jaganath Pandit (fl. 1700) 45 Jagannatha Samrat 46 Jayadeva (fl. 1000) 47 Jayant Narlikar 48 Jyesthadeva of KERALA (circa 1500 CE?) 49 Kamalakara (1616) alt.1610 CE, son of narasimha (belongs to Daivjnya 50 Katyayana , Author of Sulva Sutras 51 Kesava Daivajna 52 Kodandarama (1807-1893) of the Telugu country alternate (1854CE ) son 53 Krishna Daivajna 54 Krisnadesa 55 Kumararajiva 56 Lagadha 57 Lakshmidasa , son of Vachaspati Misra 58 Lakshmidasa Daivajna 59 Lalla son of Bhatta Trivikrama 60 Latadeva , pupil of Aryabhata lb 61 Lokavibhaga (Jaina text) 62 Madhava (son of Virupaksha of the Telugu country) 63 Madhava of Sangramagama in Kerala (1340 to 1425 CE 64 Mahadeva (son of Bandhuka) 65 Mahadeva son of parasurama, 66 Maharajah Sawai Jai Singh 67 Mahavira (Mahaviracharya) (fl. 850) 68 Mahavira , founder of Jainism, author of Surya prajnapati 69 Mahavira of the Digambara sect 70 Mahendra Sun (1349 CE) 71 Mahendra Sun, pupil of Madana Sun , (1370 CE) 72 Malayagiri, Jam Monk from Gujarat 73 Malikarjuna Sun , 1178 CE, name suggest Telugu country 74 Manava 75 Manjula 76 Manjula (fl. 930) 77 Mathukumalli V. Subbarao 78 Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri 79 Munishvara 80 Nagesh Daivajnya (son of Shiva Daivajnya) (1619 CE) 81 Narasimha Daivajna (son of Krishna Daivajnya) 1586 CE 82 Narayana Pandit (fl. 1350) 83 Narayana (c. 1500-1575) 84 Narendra Karmarkar 85 Navin M. Singhi 86 Nilakantha Somayaji or Nilakantha Somasutvan (1444 CE to 1550 CE) 87 Nisanku – son of Venkataknishna Sastri (source, sourcebook KVS) 88 Padmanabha son of Narmada (same as Parameswara?) 89 Panduranga swami 90 Panini 91 Paramesvara (1360-1455 CE) alt.1380 — 1460 CE,a Namputiri of Vataserri in Kerala 92 Patodi 93 Pillai 94 Pingala 95 Prabhakara (pupil of Aryabhata I, 525 CE? 96 Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis 97 Prashastidhara (fl. 958) 98 Pruthudakaswami (fl. 850) 99 Putumana Somayaji (c. 1660-1740) 100 Raghunath Raj 101 Raj Chandra Bose 102 Rajagopal 103 Rama Daivajnya , sonn of Madhusudhana Daivajnya 104 Ramanujam 105 Ranganatha son of Narasimha Daivajnya (1643 CE) . commentary on Surya Siddhanta 106 Referred to as son of Padmanabha (1417 CE) are they one and the same 107 S. N. Roy 108 S. S. Shrikhande 109 Saamanta Chandrasekhar Simha (see also Chandrasekhar Sinha) 110 Sankara Variyar (1500 — 1600 CE) pupil of Jyeshtadeva 111 Sankara Varman (fl. 1800) 112 Sarvadaman Chowla 113 Satyendra Nath Bose 114 Shreeram Shankar Abhyankar 115 Somaswara circa 11 century CE 116 Sridhara (fl. 900) 117 Sridharacharya 118 Srinivasa Ramanujan 119 Sripati (son of Nagadeva, 999 CE) 120 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 121 Suryadeva Yajwan (1191 CE of Gangaikonda Cholapuram in Tamilnadu) 122 The Daivajna Family — The Bernoullis of India 123 Trikkantiyur 124 Umaswati (fl. 150 B.C.E.) 125 Varahamihira (c. 505-c. 558) 126 Varahamihira (son of Adityadasa) 127 Venkatesh Ketkar 128 Vijayanandi 129 Vijay Kumar Patodi 130 Virasena 131 Virasena Acharya 132 Virupaksha Suri of the Telugu country 133 Vishnu Daivajnya (son of Divakara Daivajnya) same as Visvanatha? 134 Visvanatha Daivajna (son of Divakara Daivajna) 1578 CE 135 Yajnavalkya 136 Yallaiya (1482 CE of Skandasomeswara of the Telugu country) 137 Yaska 138 Yatavrisham Acharya 139 Yativrsabha 140 Yavanesvara
Nasadiya Sukta is one of the renowned suktha in RigVeda:- 129th suukta of the 10th mandala of the Rigveda. Mathomathis would like to present on the Sukta. nāsad āsīn no sad āsīt tadānīṁ nāsīd rajo no vyomā paro yat | kim āvarīvaḥ kuha kasya śarmann ambhaḥ kim āsīd gahanaṁ gabhīram || 1 || Then even nothingness was not, nor existence, There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping Was there then cosmic water, in depths unfathomed? na mṛtyur āsīd amṛtaṁ na tarhi na rātryā ahna āsīt praketaḥ | ānīd avātaṁ svadhayā tad ekaṁ tasmād dhānyan na paraḥ kiṁ canāsa || 2 || Then there was neither death nor immortality Nor was there then the torch of night and day. The One breathed windlessly and self-sustaining. There was that One then, and there was no other. tama āsīt tamasā gūl̥ham agre ‘praketaṁ salilaṁ sarvam ā idam | tucchyenābhv apihitaṁ yad āsīt tapasas tan mahinājāyataikam || 3 || At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness. All this was only unillumined water. That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, arose at last, born of the power of heat. kāmas tad agre sam avartatādhi manaso retaḥ prathamaṁ yad āsīt | sato bandhum asati nir avindan hṛdi pratīṣyā kavayo manīṣā || 4 || In the beginning desire descended on it. That was the primal seed, born of the mind. The sages who have searched their hearts with wisdom know that which is kin to that which is not. tiraścīno vitato raśmir eṣām adhaḥ svid āsīd upari svid āsīt | retodhā āsan mahimāna āsan svadhā avastāt prayatiḥ parastāt || 5 || And they have stretched their cord across the void, and know what was above, and what below. Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces. Below was strength, and over it was impulse. ko addhā veda ka iha pra vocat kuta ājātā kuta iyaṁ visṛṣṭiḥ | arvāg devā asya visarjanenāthā ko veda yata ābab || 6 || But, after all, who knows, and who can say Whence it all came, and how creation happened? The gods themselves are later than creation, so who knows truly whence it has arisen? iyaṁ visṛṣṭir yata ābabhūva yadi vā dadhe yadi vā na | yo asyādhyakṣaḥ parame vyoman so aṅga veda yadi vā na veda || 7 || Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows – or maybe even he does not know.
Mathomathis would like to present the following article on Buddhist Conception Of The World; The following article is available more on Shodhganga. The Buddhist texts and commentaries furnishes with the Buddhist conception of the world and the system, of which it forms a constituent. But in most cases the descriptions seem to he very much fictitious. Sober geography happens’ to appear before us only when the known and familiar places or countries are to be described. Thus the account of Jambudvipa or the Indian subcontinent is much more reliable from the geographical point of view than that of extra-Indian continents or countries. The oldest Buddhist texts describe the universe as consisting of a single circular world system which is termed as Cakkavala by them. It is surrounded by a mountain of iron which is known as Cakkavala and to which the world system owes its name. These Buddhist authors while describing the Cakkaval (= Sanskrit Cakravala)-cosmos, do not present any sort of interpretation before us and are satisfied only by cataloguing some names and measurements. The basic outlines of the single world system of the “Cakravala-cosmology,, are more or less the same throughout the Buddhist literature and form a prominent feature of the Pali texts as well as the Buddhist Sanskrit ones. The Mahaprajna-piramita-shastra and the Abhidharmakos’a, for instance, are in almost complete agreement with the details of Pali canon and commentaries in this regard. The single circular world system, however, is a prominent feature of also the Hindu and Jain cosmologies, though with many important differences in detail. Randy Kloetzli in his “Buddhist Cosmology” brings out beautifully the essential difference between the two in the following lines: “Stated briefly, it appears that the Pali Cakkavila.is intended as a more or less practical guide to the Bhikkhu in his meditations, while the Sanskrit Cakravala is part of a more self-consciously speculative system”. The Cakkavala is represented as a disk surrounded by seven circular golden mountain ranges. These mountain ranges are arranged concentrically, with Mt. Meru at the centre and the Cakkavala wall of iron at the perimeter. Proceeding outward from the center, the mountains are known as Meru, Yugandhara, Isadhara, Khadirika, Sudassana, Assakenna, Vinataka, Nimindhara and Cakkavala. Mt. Meru has a height of 80,000 yojanas and each of the mountain ranges is one half of the height of the preceding range. All of the mountains except the Cakkavila ring which is made of iron, are excrescences of the golden earth. The excellent waters of the various seas (Sita) fill the regions between the mountain ranges. The mountains penetrate these waters in an extent equal to their height. The inhabited land masses are situated in the great ocean (mahasamudra) which flows about the seventh mountain range. The four land masses located at the points of compass are spoken of as islands (dvipa, Pali dipa), and are known as Purvavideha (Eastern Yideha) in the east, Jambudvipa in the south, Aparagoyana or Ap aragodaniya (Western Pasturage) in the west and Uttarakuru (Northern Kuru-land) in the north. These four islands of the Cakkavala are distinguished from each other in a number of way, particularly with regard to the size, shape and duration of life of their inhabitants. These four Great continents are lit up in succession at an interval of six hours from each other by the sun turning round Meru. All these are said to rest bn a layer of golden earth (Kancanamayi bhumi) which: is definitely fictitious. The importance of this conception, however, cannot be doubted. The Puranas also speak of the lokaloka mountain which surrounds the circular world and is composed of the golden earth. No ring mountain is to be found in the Puranas although a series of seven ring islands and seven seas 5 encircling them occur in.their places. It may be said that the concentric islands and the seven surrounding seas of the Puranas are juxtaposed to the circular mountain system of the Buddhist cosmology.’” The interest of the oldest Buddhist tradition in this regard seems to have been limited to a single world system. But we also find traces of themes associated with multiple world systems in Pali canonical texts. A 10,000 world system .6 is mentioned in the Jatakas, though with little elaboration. It has been dealt with in a systematic way in Buddhaghosa’s Atthasalinl,~” commentary on the Dhammasanganl, which states, that four things are infinite, viz., space, the number of universe, the number of living beings and the wisdom of the Buddha In the Majjhima Nikaya (Samkharuppatti sutta) a sahasso brahma governing a sahassl lokadhatu has been distinguished from a dvisahasso brahma, a trisahasso brahma, a catussahasso brahma, pancasahasso brahma and a satasahasso brahma. These gods rule over 1,000 up to (1000∧100) worlds In the Buddhist Sanskrit text Mahavastu we read that the Buddhaksetra is the equivalent of sixtyone. triple chiliocosms, while an upaksetra is four times as large Ekasastim trisahasrani Buddhaksetram pariksitam Ato caturgunam jneyam upaksetram tathividhsm. The Mahaprajna-para-mitasastra and the Avatamsakasutra also speak of this thousand world system. For the most part, however, it is the trisahasra mahasahasra lokadhatu which emerges as the cosmological equivalent of the buddhaksetra. A very well-known passage on this concept, occurs m the Anguttara Nikaya. Now, we may speak a few words about the great mountain Mem or Maha Meru. According to some scholars Mt. Meru appears to be an exaggeration of the Himalayan range. It has been described as being at the summit and at the base 10,000 yojanas in diameter and in circumference 31,428 yojanas, 2 gows, 22 isubus, 18 yastis or stay.es and 1 cubit. Leaving out the upper part at the distance of 42,000 yojanas from the summit on a level with the rocks called Yugandhara, it is 30.000 yojanas in diameter and in circumference, 94,285 yojanas, 2 gows, 68 isubus, 11 yastis and 3 cubits, and in the centre it is 50,000 yojanas in diameter and in circumference 157,142 yojanas, 3 gows, 34 isubus, 5 yastis, and 5 cubits. From the base […]
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 105 (Beginning of Kaliyuga)) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. According to the Epic Mahabharata , the character of Lord Kirshna first appears at the time of Draupadi’s wedding and his departure is exactly 36 years after the war. No information about his birth is available in the Epic itself, although there is information about his departure. Lord Kirshna observes omens3645 similar to the ones seen at the time of the Mahabharata war, now indicating the total destruction of the Yadavas. Simulations show that in the year 3031 BCE, thirty-six years later than 3067 BCE, there was an eclipse season with three eclipses. A lunar eclipse on October 20 was followed by an annular solar eclipse on November 5, followed by a penumbral lunar eclipse on November 19, within an interval of 14 days and at an ‘aparvani’ time. Thus the date of departure of Lord Kirshna is consistent with the popular tradition that he passed away after 36 years after the war. The information about his birth can be gathered from Harivamsa and Bhagavata Purana., according to which he was born in krsna paksa astami with rohini naksatra, but there is an uncertainty about how long he actually lived. Some believe that he lived for 125 years, while others take his life span to be only 105 years. Raghavan assigns only 81 years. The date of birth of Lord Kirshna is calculated, apparently by extrapolation from the date of departure and so also are the several ‘horoscope’s of Lord Kirshna. Simulations based on the dates yield results which only go to show whether the calculations had been done accurately and correctly by those who give such ‘horoscope’s. As there is no clearly independent piece of information, in the Epic, which can be used for distinguishing the dates, one may accept that date which suits the tradition of choice. It should be understood, however, that the date of his departure from this world can be established on the basis of information in the Epic and demonstrated by the simulations. Consistency with the dates of other Vedic texts: It will be interesting to verify astronomical information contained in other Vedic texts and determine the dates based on simulations using planetarium software and to see if these dates are consistent with the date of Mahabharata . For example, based on the astronomical information from Rigveda, Sengupta inferred a solar eclipse on July 26, 3928 BCE. Figure 10 shows the star map for this date. As verified by the software RedShift, it is a central solar eclipse, which occurred two days after the summer solstice that year, as per Sengupta’s conjecture. However, some caution must be exercised. As has been discussed in detail by the author in the planetarium software, the positions of the planets and the stars are computed using the latest theories and information available and they are highly reliable. However, there is uncertainty when it comes to determining eclipses on dates extrapolated to 4000 BCE. These uncertainty which may amount to about 15 minutes when extrapolated to dates around 1000 CE, jumps to more than 12 hours for the time of the occurrence of the eclipse when extrapolated to 3000 BCE, and even more when taken to 4000 BCE. The exact location of the eclipse and the exact time of visibility are uncertain, but the occurrence of the eclipse itself is certain. As a consequence, determining the date on the basis of eclipse data alone is risky. However, the eclipse data can be used as secondary information to confirm that it occurred on a particular date. However, there are other astronomical data available in the brahmana texts. For example, satapatha brahmana refers to krttika’s rising exactly in the east. On the basis of simulations using the planetarium software, the date of the event referred to has been shown to be 2925 +/- 100 BCE, quite in agreement with Dikshit. Considering that this text is attributed to Yajnavalka, a disciple of Vaisampayana, who is an important narrator of the epic, the date of 3067 BCE for the war is consistent with the date of satapatha brahmana. The author has shown (also on the basis of simulations using the planetarium software) that Lagadha’s vedanga jyotisa should be dated to be about n1800 BCE. The astronomy followed at the time of the Mahabharata war is vedanga jyotisa, but is very much pre-Lagadha. The date of Lagadha’ s vedanga jyotisa is also consistent with the date of the war. It may be noted in passing that satapatha brahmana mentions both Pariksit and Janamejaya. This is an independent check on the date of the war. A passage in the pancavimsa brahmana (XXV. 15.3) connects Janamejaya with the sarpayaga and has been referred to by Raychaudhur. The date of a solar eclipse mentioned in this brahmana text has been determined by Sengupta4523 to be September 14, 2451 BCE. Figure shown below shows the star map for this day confirming the calculations of Sengupta. This date, which is about 600 years later, is consistent with the date of the war and the date of the other brahmana texts. Janamejaya’s Inscriptions: Several copper plate inscriptions declaring grants of land and other gifts made at the time of sarpa yaga of Janamejaya have been discovered. While there are questions about the authenticity of these plates, it will be interesting to see if the simulations based on planetarium software are consistent with the dates. Inscription I: In one of the inscriptions, it is declared that in the […]
In the following article, Mathomathis would like to present the technical aspects of the Gotra system followed in the vedic tradition. In Vedanta dharma, the term gotra means clan. It broadly refers to people who are descendants in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. However, all families having same gotra need not be cousins. They can be descendants of sons or disciples or even adopted sons of the Rishi(Seer), who is the root and whose name is used as Gotra. For example if a person says that he belongs to the Kutsa Gotra then it means that he traces back his male ancestry to the ancient Rishi (Saint or Seer) Kutsa. Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Paini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. This system was started among Brahmins, with a purpose to classify and identify the families in the community. Vedic/vedanata Brahmins identify their male lineage by considering themselves to be the descendants of the 8 great Rishis i.e Saptarishis (The Seven Sacred Saints) + Bharadwaja Rishi. So the list of root Brahmin Gotras is as follows : Angirasa Atri Gautam Kashyapa Bhrigu Vasistha Kutsa Bharadwaja The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called as gotravayava. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras (especially of the Brahmins) have evolved. For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras.In almost all Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited, since people with same gotra are considered to be siblings. But the hidden reason behind this practice is the ‘Y’ Chromosome which is expected to be common among all male in same gotra. So, the woman too carries similar ‘X’ Chromosome and if married, their offspring may be born with birth defects. Few families even maintain their Pravara which is a list of all seers through which their Gotra was derived. It connects to the root Seer. Gotra is always passed on from father to children among most Hindus, just like lastname(surname) is passed on worldwide. However, among Malayalis and Tulu’s its passed on from mother to children. Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches. Now, why only male carries fixed lastname and gotra and why female can change her last name, gotra after marriage? Genes and Chromosomes Among Humans Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father. Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person. When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother. So the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage (Father – Son – Grandson etc) because a Son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter etc) because it comes from both father and mother. A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover). On the other hand, a Son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes. Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily. If a person belongs to Angirasa Gotra then it means that his Y Chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years of timespan from the Rishi Angirasa. And if a person belongs to a Gotra (say Bharadwaja) with Pravaras (Angirasa, Bhaarhaspatya, Bharadwaja), then it means that the person’s Y Chromosome came all the way down from Angirasa to Bhaarhaspatya to Bharadwaja to the person. This also makes it clear why females are said to belong to the Gotra of their husbands after marriage. That is because women do not carry Y Chromosome, and their Sons will carry the Y Chromosome of the Father and hence the Gotra of a woman is said to be that of her husband after marriage. Y is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes […]