Vedic Roots | Classical Division – (Conclusion)
Vedic Roots | Classical Division | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article would focus on Vedic Roots – A Classical Division. Before proceeding with the following article, read the previous article Kalpa is the method of the ritual Srauta Sutra: Explains the rituals of sacrifices. Grihya Sutras: Rituals in domestic lives…
The term Vyasa in Sanskrit language means “compiler” and Vyasa Maharishi/Saint/Guru is an important figure in most vedanta dharma/tradition and so called today as “hindu” tradition. He is sometimes called Veda Vyasa i.e. “One who classified the Vedas” or Krishna Dvaipayana. Guru Vyasa is the author of the important epic in vedanta dharma which is “Mahabharata”. He is also a character in it. He is considered to be the scribe of both the Vedas and Puranas. According to Vedanta believers, Guru Vyasa is an avatar of the lord Vishnu himself. Vyasa is also considered to be one of the seven Chiranjivini’s (long lived or immortals), who are still in existence. Guru Vyasa lived around the 3rd millennium BCE. The festival of Guru Purnima is dedicated to him. It is also known as Vyasa Purnima, for it is the day believed to be both his birthday and the day he divided the Vedas. It is said that there have been 28 Vyasas before the present Vyasa whose name is Krishna Dvaipayana and he took his birth at the end of Dwapara Yuga. Krishna Dvaipayana was born of Parasara Rishi through the Matsya (Fish) kanya (girl) Satyavathi Devi under some peculiar and wonderful circumstances. Parasara was a great saint and a very respectable and a knowledgeable human being and was holding on supreme authorities on astrology and his book Parasara Hora is still a textbook on astrology. He has also written a Smriti known as Parasara Smriti which is held in such high esteem that it is quoted by our present day writers on sociology and ethics. Scriptures do give the information that the primordial guru/teacher for Vyasa is Vasudeva. Scriptures also mentions Vyasa also studied the under sages liked Sanaka and Sanandana Guru Veda Vyasa classified the Vedas into four division which we refer to as: Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharvana/Atharva Veda, which was one of the biggest gift to human society. Since guru vyasa created the sub division and hence he is referred to as Veda Vyasa, or “Splitter of the Vedas”. He was the editor of the Vedic literature. The Sanskrit word Vyasa means split, differentiate, or describe; it also means editor. This title is the most popular way of referring to him. Sage Vyasa was also the author of Brahmasutra and also the author of 18 puranas and took ‘Upakhyanas’ or discourses as a method of teaching. Vyasa also categorized 3 methods of practices where a human can explore to its full capability and those are: “Path of Karma”, “Path of devotion or upasana”, “Path of knowledge or Jnana” and it is said that the last work of Vyasa was Bhagavatam which was started with the help of Deva-Rishi Narada.
Mathomathis would like to present article on Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 103 by the author Kosla Vepa Published by Indic Studies Foundation, 948 Happy Valley Rd., Pleasanton, Ca 94566, USA. Previous article can be found here (Indian Astronomy | Astronomical Dating of Events | 102) Their website can be located Indicstudies.us. The studies is also conducted by N.S. Rajaram PhD. Author’s in the volume 1 of their research start their discussion on a topic called Why are History and the Chronology Important by Kosla Vepa PhD. Majumdar, the great historian, asserts that history records the achievements of man. According to him, history deals with facts, which can be known only from records kept. Western Scholars, while acknowledging that unlike other ancient civilizations, the ancient traditions in Bharat (India) have been preserved without a break down to the present day, have generally argued that Bharatiyas lack a sense of history and that there is a dearth of ‘historical texts’ in Bharata, that contain records of dates and events. Hence, they deny the existence of any ‘historical record’ for Bharata. These scholars have discounted the fact that two of the greatest epics of the world, Ramayana and Mahabharata are traditionally regarded as itihasas, i.e., historic texts and that there are in addition, a host of supporting texts in the form of Puranas. Ignoring the fact that Bharata has its own sense of history and the purpose of history, which differs from their own concept of history, the scholars have systematically misrepresented the chronology of Bharata so as to fit some misguided theory and have often proposed rather fanciful hypotheses. For example, one scholar even suggested that Lord Krishna , the most important personality in the whole epic, was not in existence at the time of the Mahabharata war! All of the itihasa and Purana – texts mentioned above have been considered less trustworthy as records of dates and events because of possible interpolations as they were transmitted orally over a very long period of time. However, these texts do contain references to astronomical events, many of which are genuine and can be regarded as inscriptions in the sky. If properly deciphered and validated, the astronomical events can form the basis of providing reliable chronology. Recently powerful computer software products marketed generically as planetarium software have become commercially available. These computer programs can project the view of the sky at any time, and at any place in the world, all at the touch of a mouse. The planetarium software can therefore be used advantageously to project the view of the ancient sky and validate the “deciphering of celestial inscriptions,” by comparing the descriptions in the texts with the actual views of the sky. The author has shown that the astronomical references in various texts can be simulated using the planetarium software resulting in a reliable inference of the date of the events. The present essay examines a number of such texts and shows that a consistent and reliable chronology of ancient Bharata can be established on the basis of simulations using the planetarium software. Our own sense of time is rooted in astronomy, for it arises from the three fundamental motions namely, the rotation of the earth, the revolution of the earth around the sun and the revolution of the moon around the earth. It is not at all surprising that a ‘chronology’ can be established on the basis of astronomy. It is a tribute to the wisdom of the ancient rishis (sanints) of Bharata who have preserved for posterity that chronology in terms of astronomical events as recorded in various texts. The plan of the essay is as follows. First, the astronomical references in the epic Mahabharata, from which a date can be ascertained, are discussed. The methodology of arriving at a date is explained. The date arrived at is supported by star maps from the planetarium software. It is important to stress that the date of the war is determined solely on the basis of astronomical references in the epic Mahabharata alone and the date is established independently of any other source, as the sheet-anchor for the chronology of Bharata. The consistency with other texts of Vedic and other traditions is then discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the consistency with the genealogy lists from Puranas texts. A further step in establishing the chronology of Bharata is given in the simulations of the dates of certain inscriptions, namely, the dates of Vikrama samvat, Buddha nirvana, and the date of Adi Guru Sankaracharya. This essay goes a long way in demonstrating a consistent chronology of Bharata through the simulations using planetarium software, with the date of the Mahabharata War as the sheet-anchor and is largely in agreement with the chronology as advocated by Kota Venkatachelam and a host of other scholars. The Date of the Mahabharata War The importance of the date of the Mahabharata war as the sheet-anchor for the chronology of Bharata is too well known to be stated again. According to tradition, the war between the Kauravas and Pandavas took place at the transition between Dwapara and Kaliyuga, around 3000 BCE. However, ever since Western Scholars showed interest some hundred years ago in the epic and began to discuss its ‘historicity’, a lively debate (or rather a war of dates!) has been going on. While some scholars declare that the whole epic is a myth denying any historical truth to the story of the epic and ignore the tradition, many do believe that the war actually took place, but are divided as to the magnitude of the event and as to the date when it actually took place. Some scholars portray the epic as an exaggerated account of a family feud. A plethora of dates ranging from before 5000 BCE to around 1000 BCE have been proposed on the basis of estimates arrived at by using diverse methodologies (some based on fanciful assumptions) and there appears to be no consensus for the […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would deal mainly with the Glossary, previous article can be found @Indic Cosmology | Glossary | 101 J Jnana Yoga ज्नान – The path of knowledge Jñāna (also spelled “Gyāna”; Devanagari घ्यान) is the Sanskrit term for knowledge. In Hinduism it means true knowledge, PAra Vidya, the knowledge that one’s self atman is Ultimate Reality Brahman. In Buddhism, it refers to pure awareness that is free of conceptual encumbrances, and is contrasted with Vijnana, which is a moment of ‘divided knowing’. Jnana yoga is one path (marga) towards moksha (liberation), while Yoga offers different paths for different temperaments such as Bhakti and Karma Yoga. Jivanmukta – Adi Sankara gives the true definition of a Jivanmukta – The great souls he says , calm and tranquil, live, regenerating the world like the spring; and themselves having crossed the ocean of embodied existence, and death, help those who struggle, for the same end, without the least trace of personal motives or advantage Jyotisha – One of the 6 Vedangas, also known as the science of light .It includes the study of the motion of Celestial Objects or Astronomy and the effects of the forces arising from these bodies and their effects on the human mind. It is the hypothesis of Vedic Astrology that such effects can be predicted by studying the relative location of the planets and the stars . Jyotisha is often discussed as the instructional element of the Rig Veda, and as such is a Vedangas, or “body part” of the Vedas. Jyotisha is called the Eye of the Veda, for its believed ability to view both henomenal reality and wisdom itself. Part of a larger Vedic curriculum including mathematics, architecture, medical and military applications. The author of this Vedanga is purported to be one Lagadha K Kalidasa – The poet laureate of ancient India. The author of the most widely known text and play Shakuntala Kalpasutras – constitutes part of the Vedanga consists of Grhyasutras, Dharmasutras, Sulvasutras, Srautasutras. Kama, काम – “Pleasure,desire,wish, love; enjoyment.” Earthly love, aesthetic and cultural fulfillment, pleasures of the world (often used in the sense of sexual desire, but not necessarily so), the joys of family, intellectual satisfaction. Enjoyment of happiness, security, creativity, usefulness and inspiration. An essential ingredient for the emotional health of an individual and recognized as such by the ancient Vedics. Kama is one of the four Purusharthas or goals of life, the others being dharma , artha and moksha. Kaarika – Gloss or explanatory text of an original text, such as the Kaarika of the Mandukya Upanishad by Gaudapada Karma Yoga – Karma yoga, or the “discipline of action” is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a holy scripture of Hinduism. One of the four pillars of yoga, Karma yoga focuses on the adherence to duty (dharma) while remaining detached from the reward. It states that one can attain Moksha (salvation) by doing ones duties in an unselfish manner. A great portion of the Bhagavad Gita is engaged in discussing the efficacy of various Yogas towards the goal of self realization or Moksha. Initially Arjuna is bewildered, when Bhagavan says that the Yoga of Knowledge is superior to the Yoga of action , even though desireless it may be. Why then do you ask me to fight asks an exasperated Arjuna of his friend and mentor, if such be the case. The answer by Bhagavan and elucidated by Adi Sankara in his Bhashya is one of the major insights of this lovely Celestial song. As explained by Adi Sankara, Karma Yoga consists of 4 principles Giving up an egoistic attitude (BG 18-46),2. Giving up the hankering for the fruits or results of one’s action (BG 2-39). Maintaining equanimity in the face of desirable andhappy circumstances as well as undesirable and not so pleasant situations (BG 2-48) Surrendering of all actions as an offering to the Lord Ishwara) wholeheartedly (BG 3-33). It is possible to transcend. Karma Yoga by the Yoga of Knowledge, which is in fact the superior approach, but such an alternative is not for every individual , and is best suited for those who have realized Brahman Khagola – Celestial sphere or armillary sphere, a term used for both the geometrical celestial sphere as well as the astronomical instrument called the armillary sphere. Kshatriya – The varna identified in the classical Indic tradition as those entitled to exercise military power and perform sacrifices, the dominant Guna in the Kshatriya varna is one of Rajas, and a passion for action. It is your Dharma to engage in action protect the aged and infirm and the children and women in your protection. It is better to follow ones own Dharma (dictated by ones Gunas) admonished Sri Krishna to Arjuna than to try something, however beguiling, which is not so suited Kurgan – A region in Europe from where the putative emigration of the mythical Aryan race took place M Madhavacharya – Celebrated religious teacher and scholar of the 14th century, one of the main teachers of the Dvaita-Vedanta school of pronounced dualism. It teaches the existence or permanent reality of two fundamental principles in universal nature: spirit and matter, or divinity and the universe. This dualism is in direct contrast with the unity doctrine taught in the Advaita Vedanta or nondualistic system of Sankaracharya. Mahavrata – winter solstice Mahaavaakya, महावाक्य – The 4 expressions that embody Vedanta, the essence of attaining Jivanmukta. The Mahaavaakyas are the four “Great Sayings” of the Upanishads, foundational religious texts of Hinduism. These four sayings encapsulate the central Truth of Hinduism. The Mahaavaakya are: Prajnaanam Brahman “Conscious is Brahman” (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3). Ayam Atma Brahman “This Self (Atman) is Brahman” (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2) Tat Tvam Asi – “That Thou art ” (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7) Aham Brahmasmi – […]
In the following article, team mathomathis would showcase an information about Hopi Vedic Parallels by Prash Trivedi and understand the message of the author in the following article. Though a number of indigenous people and tribes exist all across the globe, it can be safely said that none of them have as deep an insight into the condition of Mother Earth and the wisdom to deal with it as our Hopi brothers. They are the chosen ones of the Creator as they were granted permission to hold in trust all land and life for the great Spirit at the time of emergence of the Fourth world, of the Hopis or the present age. This conclusion about the Hopi people has not been reached in haste. It has been borne out of the wisdom of ancient Indian philosophy which transcends even the starting of time and boundaries of our present Universe. According to the ancient Indian scriptures the creator “Param Brahma or Adi Purusha” created the Universe through his creative power “Adi Shakti” in a plan which comprised of three axes and several vibratory centers along these axes. Everything in the visible Universe from the smallest to biggest is made on the basis of this plan. These seven centers also exist inside the body of man as man is made in the image of the creator. The central axis in man lies along his backbone. The primordial power “Kundalini Shakti” lies in the acrum bone at the base of the spine. The awakening of this power and its journey through the seven centers is the first step in the process of self realization. Through this realization comes the wisdom to exist in harmony with Mother Nature and the capacity to realize the action-less, omnipresent, and eternal Creator. These vibratory centers also exist in the Mother earth. The Hopis also have a similar perception of the creation of the universe by the Ultimate Creator “Taiowa”. There is an idea of Mother Nature as a Spiderwoman who is responsible for the creation of these vibratory centers which echo the sound of the creator. The Hopi wisdom is also aware of the central axis and man’s axis being the backbone which controls the equilibrium of his movements and functions. The Hopi legend also talks about “Palatkwapi” or the Red House located somewhere in Central America having four stories and on the top storey there is learning of planets and stars. In this story man also learnt about the “Open Door” in the top of their heads, how to keep it open and converse with the Creator. This “Open Door” of Hopi mythology is the same as the seventh center on the central axis, and is called “Sahasrara” – the thousand petaled lotus in the Hindu scriptures. When the primordial power or the “Kundalini” is able to pass through the last center one can commune with the Creator. With time, detailed knowledge about these centers were lost among the Hopi people, but it can still be found in the holy land of India. India has time and again seen the incarnations of the Great Spirit, who have kept alive this knowledge throughout the ages. Knowledge of the ancient Indian scriptures strongly indicates that the area known as the “Four Corners”, where the Hopis have settled is an important vibratory center which will cause the emergence of the new age which is known as the Fifth World by the Hopi people. Let’s consider some facts: The Hopi believe the Creator of Man is a woman. The Sumerians believed the Creator of Man was a woman. Vedic tradition and most of the other ancient civilization believe in the feminine aspect of the creator. Vedic tradition calls her as Prakriti (Mother Nature) or Shakti (creative force responsible for weaving the web of life). Interestingly, the Hopi regard her as Spiderwoman, i.e. the one who has woven the web of life. This was the predominant thinking of most of the civilizations during the Age of Cancer, the mother sign, which lasted from around 8000B.C to 6000B.C. The Hopi believe the Father Creator is KA. The Sumerians believed the Father Essence was KA. The Vedic tradition also believes that the root of the father essence is ‘KA’ which is the first alphabet of Sanskrit, the primary language of the Vedic tradition. The Hopi believe Taiowa, the Sun God, is the Creator of the Earth. The Sumerians believe TA.EA was the Creator. The Vedic tradition also believes that the earth was born out of the Sun and has been nourished by it ever since. The Sun is seen and worshiped as the material representation of the one true God, the eternal creator provider and destroyer, in both the cultures. The Hopi believe two brothers had guardianship of the Earth. The Sumerians believed two brothers had dominion over the Earth. Almost all the cultures including the Egyptians, Mayans, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and the Jews have this concept of twin gods or brothers presiding over the affairs of the earth. This concept arises from the dual nature of the world we live in symbolized by Gemini, the sign of the twins, and worship of these twin gods was at its peak in the Age of Gemini ranging from around 4000 B.C to 2000 B.C. The Hopi believe Akush to be the Dawn Katsina. The Sumerians believed AK.U to be Beings of light. The Sanskrit word for sky, most preferably for the dawntime which is considered the most sacred time, is ‘Akash’. The Hopi name for the Pleaides is ChooChookam. The Sumerians believed SHU. SHU.KHEM were the supreme stars. Though Pleiades are significant to the Hopi people ethereal significance is given to the Great Bear or the Seven Sisters constellation. Hopi believe that they came to earth from one of the stars in the Great Bear in a big spaceship and the Vedic scriptures have detailed mythology regarding this constellation and the beings that reside there. The Hopi believe Pahana was the Lost Brother […]
Mathomathis would like to present an article on: Vedic Glossary documented by Indic Cosmology, Kosla Vepa (INDIC STUDIES FOUNDATION), on the context of: THE STORY OF THE INDIC COSMOLOGY AND THE CELESTIAL TIME KEEPERS. The article would consists of Vedic Epistemology | The Vedic Paradigm for the development of knowledge Para Vidya (Sciences of the material world) and aPara Vidya (Transcendental Sciences) Adhi Daivika represent Cosmic phenomena such as Meteorites, sun spots which cause a disruption in the planet; Adhi Bhautika encompass Terrestrial phenomena such as fire floods, landslides and Adhyatmika, are purely subjective traits such as inertia, lack of faith, insincerity and such , arise from our own negativities. The following article will present on Epistemology of the Dharmik tradition (Epistemology is the study of the origin, nature and validity of knowledge). Darshana: Vision, philosophical doctrine Pramana: Right Knowledge. There are several approaches to accumulating and fine tuning knowledge Pratyaksha: Direct perception, for example ocular proof Anumaana, अनुमान , inference Upamaana: Use of analogy,simile Shabdabodha ( शब्दबोध ): Cognition caused by an utterance based on Authoritative or scriptural testimony e,g, The Bhagavad Gita. Who determines whether a particular scripture is authoritative. Ultimately it is the individual. Arthapaati: (Postulate) Upapatti: Necessity of proof or demonstration Viparyaya: (Wrong knowledge or lack of discrimination) Vikalpa: (Fancy or Verbal delusion) Nidra: (sleep) Smriti: (Memory) The Shad-Dharshanas: The Shad-Dharshanas are six great works (Philosophical systems) that shed light on Indian Ethos, the way the Indic looks at the world, which many mistakenly consider to be based on blind belief. Explaining the Vedas explicitly, they share with the world the wisdom contained therein. The six texts are based on: The Veda, Non-belief and Inner Vision They explain incidents and events that pertain to all the three times of past, present and future. They have taught man how to do away with suffering, restlessness etc., and lead a good life by removing the dirt in him. They explicitly state that the Vedas, the Vedanta and the knower of Vedas are all one and the same. They explain the nature of the mind which is responsible for all Intelligence, intellect and discrimination. These six great Dharshanas (texts) are: Nyaaya, Vaisheshika, Saankhya, Yoga, Puurva-Mimaamsa and Utthara Mimaamsa. Valid knowledge and its means Valid knowledge (prama) is defined as that knowledge which has for its object something that is not already known and is uncontradicted (anadhigata-abaadhita arthavishayaka-jnaanam). The qualification ‘something that is not already known’ is meant to exclude recollection. The word ‘uncontradicted’ excludes illusion or error, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake. The Mimamsakas hold that time is also cognised through the organs of sense. Thus, when an object is seen, the cognition is connected with the moment when it is seen. As a result, when an object is seen continuously for several moments, the cognition at each moment is considered to be different from the cognition of the same object at the previous or next moment. In this view, the cognition at each moment is a new cognition and so the qualification ‘something that is not already known’ applies and the definition is applicable. According to Vedanta, however, a continuous cognition for several moments is one single cognition. The knowledge of a pot, for example, is Consciousness reflected in the mental modification (vritti) in the form of the pot and this is just one throughout the time the same pot continues to be seen. In this view also the definition applies. Objection: According to Advaita Vedanta, all objects such as pot are unreal, being ‘mithya’, and so the knowledge of the pot is contradicted and it cannot be valid knowledge. Answer: It is only after the realization of Brahman that the pot is contradicted. In the above definition, ‘uncontradicted’ means ‘not contradicted during the transmigratory state’. The following is adapted from Dattapeetham What is Nirvachana (definition)? For properly understanding a topic, we should be conversant with the correct definitions of the words we useIt was in this context that the question ‘what is Nirvachana?’ had come up. Nir-Vachana means, to elucidate appropriately and precisely. It means ‘to explain with the help of unambiguous terms what has to be explained’. In the present context of understanding Vedanta, we were trying to understand the phenomenon of the manifest world and the Knowledge of the Self. Understanding itself is Jnana (knowledge). Jnana: Jnana is of two types. 1. Yathaartha Jnana and 2. Ayathaartha Jnana. Yathaartha Janna means understanding an object as that of the literal object only. For example, in the example of rope snake, to understand a rope to be a rope is Yathaartha Janna. Wrongly understanding an object (to be something else) is Ayathaartha Janna. This is also called Asatya Jnana (false knowledge). In the analogy of rope and snake, assuming a piece of rope to be a snake is Ayathaartha Janna. Objection: When simple terms such as Satya Jnana and Asatya Jnana are available, why should difficult words (Yathaartha Jnana and Ayathaartha Jnana) be used? Reply: It is true that they are difficult terms. But they possess more clarity. There are two words Yatha + Artha (in the word Yathaartha). ‘To perceive an object as that very object’ is the meaning of these words. That is, to perceive a rope as rope is Yathaartha Jnana. Using the word Yathaartha, rather than Satya conveys this meaning better. Because the term is difficult, the men of wisdom have used another simpler word ‘Pramaa’ in place of Yathaartha. Pramaa means Yathaartha Jnana. Pramaa (True knowledge, accuracy of perception). Pramaa is of two types. 1. Smriti (remembrance) and 2. Anubhava (experience). Smriti is recollection of what has been experienced in the past. Anubhava is perceiving in the present. Anubhava comes from Pramanas (testimonies) such as Pratyaksha (direct perception). When the knowledge thus obtained with the help of Pramanas remains in the Antahkarana (inner instruments) as Samskara (latent impression) and after some time, due to some reason gets recollected, it becomes ‘Smriti). Therefore, it can be said with […]