Mathomathis would like to present the article on the Vaimanika Shastras – Vimana Shastras by Maharshi Bharadwaaja Propounded by Venerable SUBBARAYA SHASTRY Translated into English and Edited, Printed and Published by G.R. JOSYER SCHOLAR, HISTORIAN, ESSAYIST, SANSKRITIST Printed at CORONATION PRESS, MYSORE-4, INDIA. The following article would be presented on Types of Vimanas, i.e. different type of flying vehicles or aircrafts or aeroplanes depicted in the Vimana Shastra’s. Before proceeding further on the following article, its advised to complete the previous article on: Types Of Vimanas | Rukma Vimana | Atha Rukma Vimana Nirnayaha | 103

Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 2:

"Tripurothha." |  "Next Tripura."

Bodhaananda Vritti: This vimana has 3 enclosures, or aavaranas or tiers. Each aavarana is called “Pura.” As it consists of 3 aavaranas it is called “Tripura” vimana. It is operated by the motive power generated by solar rays. Narayana also says:- The vimana which naturally can travel on land, sea, and in the sky by alteration of its structure is called Tripura Vimana. It has got 3 parts. The first part can travel on land. The second part can travel under and over water. The 3rd part travels in the sky. By uniting the 3 parts by means of keelakas, the plane can be made to travel in the sky. The plane is divisible into 3 parts so that it might travel on land, sea, or air. The construction of the 1st part is now explained. Tripura vimana should be made out of Trinetra metal only.

Trinetra loha is explained by Shaakataayana:- Jyotishmatee loha 10 parts, kaanta-mitra 8 parts, vajramukha loha 16 parts, these 3 to be filled in crucible, then adding tankana or borax 5 parts, trynika 7 parts, shrapanikaa 11 parts, maandalika 5 parts, ruchaka or natron 3 parts, mercury 3 parts, then filled in crucible in padmamukha furnace and heated to 631 degrees with trimukhee bellows, the resulting liquid, if poured into cooler, will yield a metal, shining like peacock feather, unburnable, unbreakable, weightless, impregnable by water, fire, air and heat, and indestructible. With that metal the peetha should be prepared, of any desired size. The following is given as an example. It may be 100 feet wide and 3 feet thick, round or square. Leaving 20 feet on the western side, at intervals of 10 feet 80 spots should be marked for wheeled boats. 80 feet long, 3 feet wide, 5 feet high boat shaped dronies or containers should be fixed on the marked lines. Three feet wide openings should be made in the top of the dronies, so as to raise the wheel inside them quickly and cover them underneath. There should be fittings which enable the wheels to be lowered on land, and raised and covered underneath when going in water.

The wheels should have axle rods with fittings to attract electric power. The axle rods should be 2½ feet long and 1 foot thick. The wheels should be 3 feet wide and 1 foot thick, have, 5, 6, or 7 spokes, fixed in the rims, and covered with musheeka up to 4 inches from the edge. Holes with glass coverings should be made in all the wheels. These 12 wheels, or 8, or 6, or 4, should be fixed inside the boat like structure. For transmitting power wires made of somakaanta loha should be fixed in the holes made in the wheels. In the middle of each wheel electric aaghaata keelakaas should be fixed, and in them chhidraprasaarana keelakas. Over all the chakradronee boats, copper wire pairs should be fixed on both sides, and in the joints of the wheels. Rods should be attached to the wires so that power could be drawn from the wires and passed to the top of the wheels. And power should be passed to the wires underneath the wheels. In climbing hills, and going down slopes, by adjusting the power at the top or the bottom of the wheels, smooth progress is made possible. By adjusting the necessary keelakas it is possible to accelerate the speed, or in going down, to restrain the flow of the current, and put brake on excess speed.

For attracting power from the generator a naala or pipe with wires should be fixed at the front of the peetha through 5 faced wheel keelakas, and the wires should be connected to the fittings at the top and bottom of the wheels, with glass cups. In order to put covering over the boat formations, pillars should be fixed between each boat line, and covered with mica sheets, as per architectural rules.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 3:- 

"Shuddhhaambaraattadhhi."  | "Out of pure mica alone"

Bodhaananda Vritti: The vimana should be made out of pure mica alone. Mica is described in “Dhatu sarvasva “. There are four kinds of mica, white mica, red mica, yellow mica, and black mica. The white mica has 16 varieties. Red mica has 12 varieties. The yellow mica has 7 varieties. And the black mica has 15 varieties. Thus there are 50 varieties in all. Shownakeeya also says:- There are of 4 castes which are: brahmin, kshatriya, vysya, and sudra. They are of 50 varieties. The brahmin mica has 16 varieties. The kshatriya mica has 12 varieties. The vysya mica has 7 varieties. And the sudra mica has 15 varieties, totalling 50 in all. Their names are as follows. The brahmin mica varieties are ravi, ambara, bhraajaka, rochishmaka, pundareeka, virinchika, vajragarbha, koshambara, sowvarchala, somaka, amritanetra, shytyamukba, kuranda, rudraasya, panchodara and rukmagarbha. The kshatriya varieties are shundeeraka, shambara, rekhaasya, owdumbara, bhadraka, panchaasya, amshumukha, raktanetra, manigarbha, rohinika, somaamshaka, and kourmika. The vysya varieties are krishnamukha, shyaamarekha, garalakosha, panchadhaara, ambareeshaka, manigarbha, and krownchaasya. The shoodra varieties are gomukha, kanduraka, showndika, mugdhaasya, vishagarbha, mandooka, thailagarbha, rekhaasya, parvanika, raakaamsuka, praanada, drownika, raktabandhaka, rasagraahaka, vranahaarika.

Out of these, pundareeka from the 1st class, rohinika from the second, panchadhaara from the third, and drownika from the 4th class are good for use in constructing the vimana. These should first be purified as per rules. The process of purification is given in “Samskaara Ratnaakara”: skandhaaraka or salt of roitleria tinctoria?, shaaranika or rubus salt?, pinjulee or yellow orpiment?, cowries, borax, kaakajanghaa or wild liquorice?, moss, rowdrikaa, salt-petre, douvaarika, shambara or benzoin, and phosphorus. These should be separately filled in the smelter. The decoctions should be filled in glass vessels.

The mica is to be purified with each one of these. The mica is to be powdered, put in skandhaavaara acid in smelting vessel. It should be boiled for 3 days in fire, and for 3 days in electric heat. Then take the liquid and put it in a bronze vessel, pour in shaaranika acid and keep it in sun for 3 days. Then add pinjulee acid and keep buried in earth for 5 days. Afterwards add cowri acid, and boil in bhoodhara yantra for one day. Then add mustard, and adding borax acid and burning arjuna, myrabolan wood, place it in brown-barked acacia cinders for 3 days. Then add wild liquorice acid and expose it to the full moon rays on the 14th and 15 days. The mica is to be then taken out and washed in hot water. Then add wild corn, and pouring in moss acid place it under earth for 6 days. Then take out the mica, add roudri acid, place the vessel in a big fire-place, and burn in 64 feet of dried cowdung. Next taking out the mica put it in sesamum oil for 1½ days, and expose to the sun from morning to sundown.

Then take out the mica, wash it clean, put in bronze vessel with salt-petre solution with dattoori or yellow thistle seeds, place it in a heap of burning kundalee or mollugo stricta leaves. Then take out the mica, add dourvaarika acid and bake for a day with hay-fire. Then put the mica in benzoin acid for 3 days. Next add one-fourth as much of camphor, and placing it in the churning machine, churn for a day. Then placing it in Simhaasya crucible cook with boiling water. Add ranjaka or phosphorus acid, 3 palas or 12 tolas of tankana or borax, 12 tolas of lime, 4 tolas of soorana root or tacca, karkotaka 20 tolas, vrishala or onion 28 tolas, koorma-tankanaka 8 palas or 32 tolas, rouhinaka or red sandal 40 tolas, shambara 80 tolas, muchukunda 12 tolas. These cleaned and filled in the crucible, and placed in simhamukha furnace filled with charcoal, and melted with 800 degrees heat will yield a metal shining like a precious stone, very light, unbreakable, unburnable and indestructible. With that the vimana is to be constructed. Let’s consider the parts of the vimana: 2 feet thick and 3 feet high pillars, painted in different colours and adorned with  pictures, should be prepared, and 80 of them should be fixed in the spaces between the boats. On the pillars 10 feet wide pattikas or sheets, and of the same length as the boats, should be fitted with screws, and two-faced hinges.

In order to accommodate crew and passengers of the vimana, and store luggage, rooms and partitions should be constructed with decorations. In order to provide secrecy, doors should be provided as also ventilators. Revolving wheels with necessary fittings and switches should be fixed so that by putting on a switch the rooms would revolve. Wheels should be fixed in the lanes between the boats. Air-pipes with wheels should be fixed. In order to ensure supply of air, tubes with wheels, and bellows with wide mouths, leaving 20 junctional centres, should be fixed. In the front, two faced tubular wheels should be fixed to dispel the air downwards or upwards or side ways, at 30 feet intervals from the aavrutta or enclosed pradesha of the vimana. At the bottom of the vimana metal balls with chain-wirings should be fixed for operations in the course of flight.

The 1st floor will be 7 feet high, with the roofing duly fixed with nalikaa-keelakas with 10 feet intervals. With 20 feet interval in the middle, wires with beaked ends should be attached to each keela. The fittings should be such as to enable opening and shutting like an umbrella. The cloth covering like a tent top should cover the entire floor. The second aavarana should be made of trinetra metal.

Maharshi Bharadwaaja Sutra 4:- 

"Taduparichaanyaha."   | "Another above it."

Bodhaananda Vritti: Having described the first floor above, now the second floor is being described. The second floor should be slightly smaller than the first floor. If the first floor is 100 feet wide, the second should be 80 feet wide. The floor should be 80 feet wide, and 3 feet thick, and made of trinetra metal. Its fittings should be like those on the first floor, and be duly connected with electric wiring from the generator.

In order to take the vimana through water, first the wheels at the bottom used for land route should be drawn up, and in order to prevent water coming up, the bottom should be completely covered up with ksheeree-pata or milk cloth. Four inches thick metal rods, 12 inches long, to which wheels 1 foot wide and ½ foot thick, and shaped like frog claws, are fixed, should be adjusted on both sides of the dronee or boat lines. Similarly in the front portion of the vimana, on both sides two such wheeled rods should be fixed in order to divert water, By switching on power the main wheels will revolve, making all the wheels revolve, and expelling water, and aiding the progress of the vimana forward.

For the supply of air inside, on the sides of the 2nd floor, should be fixed, air pipes 6 inches wide and made of ksheeree pata or milk cloth, cleaned with acid, from the partitions in the 1st floor upto the top of the vimana, their tops being covered with revolving metal covers, with air sucking pumps worked by power. The air so pumped into the pipes will fill both the second and 1st floors, and provide air comfort for the crew and passengers of the vimana. Above the roofing of the two floors all round, spreading out and closing up keelakas should be fixed. So as to separate the floors, foldable chain fittings should be fixed at 10 feet intervals. Wires from the electrical generator should be connected to the fittings, so that by their operation the floors will be separated, and the separated floors simultaneously move on land and in the air.

In the 2nd floor also cabins, partitions and seating and doors and windows should be constructed as attractively as in the first floor. The enclosing walls of the floor should be 7 feet high from its peetha, and half a foot thick. In order to draw electric current from the third floor two poles should be erected in the back room with transmitter from which wires will pass the current to the various fixtures on the floor. At the front of the vimana a mast should be erected. At its foot two bells made of bronze should be fixed in order to indicate time to the crew and passengers. In every room on the floor alarm chains, as in railways, should be fixed so that the occupants may call for help in times of danger. On hearing the call the crew will rush to the room and attend to the requirements of the passengers. Sound transmitter, image transmitter, direction indicator, time-piece, and cold and heat gauges should be installed on either side of the floor, with necessary cable connections. Then in order to protect against excessive wind currents, storms, and heat-waves, three machines should be installed at the back, on either side, and on both sides of the turret.

They are described in “Yantra Sarvasva” as three-faced air protection yantra, solar-blaze conditioning yantra, and rain storm protection yantra. Their construction is given here as per shaastras. First, three-faced air force reducing yantra. It must be made of Vaaruna Metal: Vaaripanka, vishaari, borax, jaalikaa, mango, vishodara, vaaripanchaka, kshaarasaptaka, kshona, manjula or madder root, godhara, vaarunaasyaka, paarvana or chlorodendrum phlomoides, aruna, kaakatunda, bhoodhara, vaarunaabhraka, natron, kundaaleemukha, lodhra or benzoin, varikudmala or water flower, shaarikaarasa, panchabaanasahodara, lead 5 parts, soorana or tacca, honey 8 parts, vaata, kankanikodara, Sunda, anjana or eye-black, kukkutaandaka, khaadira or brown-barked acacia, loddhruka, simhikaa-mukha, koormajangha, and masoorika or lentil, all these to be cleaned, and filled in crucible, placed in padmamukha furnace, and heated to 700 degrees with 5 faced bellows, poured into equifying yantra and churned, will yield a light, smoke-coloured, impregnable vaaruna metal.

Then it is to be purified, according to “Kriyaasaara.” First, place it in shundeera acid (great-leaved laburnum?) and boil for 3 days, and then with kuttinee yantra beat it into flat pattis, make thick decoction of soorana root or tacca, and smear it to 1 inch thickness on it and heat it for 3 yaamaas or 9 hours. Then mritsaara, vaagura, opium, should be boiled together for a day. The concoctions will become red like lac. The metal patti should be smeared with it and heated in the taapana yantra for a yaama or 3 hours. Then keep it in the sun for a day. Then kantaka or small caltrap, heranda, dhavalodara, and chaaraka, and gingelly should be mixed together, and the oil extracted. The metal should be smeared with it and kept in the sun for 3 days, and then heated in the sun for a day. Then paste the gum of kankola or cubeb pepper 1 inch thick, and stick into it thumb-sized vaatakuthaaraka manis, place in furnace of brown-barked acacia and cool for 9 hours. The metal will become like diamond.

Out of this a cover should be made for the vimana, with necessary fittings for spreading over and folding up, connected with electric wires drawn from inside the vimana. The charge of electricity will permeate all over, as well as the manis on the pattika. Three serpent-faced keelakas should be fixed. These will suck in the fierce wind as it blows, and belch it out to the upper regions, so that the wind force on the vimana will be curbed, and danger therefrom averted. The rain storm protection yantra should be made of crowncha metal. Says “Kriyaasaara”, The metal that can destroy the dravapraanana force of water is krowncha loha. Therefore the varshopasamhaara yantra should be made out of that alone.

Krowncha loha is described in “Mantra Sarvasva” as follows: Jyotirmukha or rose-coloured red-wort 8 parts, tryambaka or copper 11 parts, humsa-tunda 12 parts, camphor 7 parts, tankana or borax 8 parts, sand 4 parts, choorna or lime 12 parts, owrwaara or cucumber?, ruruka 5 parts, patola or snake-gourd 27 parts, and vaardhyushika or sea-foam 1 part, these to be cleaned and placed in crucible, and heated in padma furnace to 512 degrees with 3 faced bellows, poured into churning yantra, and then cooled, will yield, a metal, honey-coloured, light, strong, rain-storm antidote, and heat impregnated. Extracting oil from the seeds of basil, rukma or yellow thistle, punkha, red wort, trijataa or bael, and pancha-kantaki or 5 thorny trees, the metal should be smeared and heated. The metal is to be made into pattis with kuttinee yantra, make pipes out of them 3 feet wide of the same height as the vimana, and fix them properly all around. In front of the vimanaa-avarana also 3 feet high pipes should be fixed with keelakas or hinges. The pipes should be smeared with chana or gram decoction 1 inch thick. On that vajragarbha decoction or triangular spurge milk should be smeared thrice, which will make it hard as diamond. On the pipes, at 12 inches intervals, sinjeeta vajra should be smeared and heated by fire. Then thumb-size panchaasya manis which will counteract the effects of water, should be imbedded on the smeared pipes. Then the pipes with proper fittings at both ends should be fixed on the 8 sides of the vimana. Wires proceeding from the electric generator should be taken through glass tube and connected to the pipes. When the current passes through them to the panchaasya mani, the concentrated force in it blending with the electric force will fiercely oppose the forces of the rain storm and disturb the atmosphere so as to dilute and weaken the storm, and render it ineffective. Therefore the varshopahaaraka yantra should be fixed on the vimana.

Sooryaathapopasamhaara yantra or the burning-sun protection machine: It is to be made out of the aathapaashana loha. It is explained in Kriyaasaara: Aatapaashana loha protects against burning sun. Therefore Aatapa samhaara yantra should be made with that metal. “Lohatantra” describes that metal. Owrvaarika, kowshika, gaaruda, soubhadraka, chaandrika, sarpanetra, sringaataka, sowmyaka, chitraloha, vishvodara, panchamukha, virinchi, these twelve metals should be put in equal parts in padma-moosha crucible. Borax 7 parts, chowlika 5 parts, cowree salt 6 parts, kunjara 12 parts, sand 9 parts, camphor 4 parts, cardamom 16 parts, powshnika 10 parts, should be added to them, and placing it in nalikaa furnace heated to 725 degrees with mooshakaasya bhastrika bellows. Then the liquid should be put in, the mixing machine, and afterwards poured into the cooler. The resulting alloy will be light, orange coloured, heat proof, and unbreakable, for the making of sooryaathapopasamhaara yantra, after being duly purified, says Yantrasarvasva.

Kriyaasaara explains its purification: Ashwaththa or sacred fig tree, mango, plantain, aala or banyan, baadava or peepul, trimukhee, trijata or bael, gunja or wild liquorice, sherinee, onurberah, patolika or snake gourd, the bark of these trees should be powdered, should be filled in vessel with 10 times as much water, and boiled down to one-tenth measure. Then taking the 11 kinds of salts, bidaa lavana or table-salt, syndhava or rock-salt, oushara or saline earth, budila salt, maacheepatra salt or solanum indicum?, praanakshaara panchaka, or 5 urine salts or ammonium chloride? and saamudra or sea-salt, these eleven salts, should be placed in dravaakarshana yantra or dehydration machine and boiled. Taking the previous decoction, add half as much this decoction, put the aatapaashana metal in it and boil for 5 days, then wash with water, and anoint with honey, and place in hot sun for 3 days, then wash it, and use it for producing the yantra.

First pattikas should be made from the metal with kuttinee yantra, 2 feet square, or circle, and 3 feet thick. On that 3 pipes, 1 foot wide and 5 feet high, should be fixed. Three triangular glass bowls should be placed underneath the pipes. In each of them one prastha or seer of somadraavaka or white acacia juice should be filled. In each vessel a heat proof crystal of the 121st class should be cleaned with acid and placed. Then an umbrella shape 10 feet wide should be made out of the metal, and fixed so as to cover the 3 pipes, with revolving keelakas fixed half-a-foot underneath the umbrella cover. Above that 3 kalasas, 3 feet wide and shaped like cooking vessel, should be fixed. At their centre circular chaalapattikas should be fixed. Upon that three cold-diffusing crystals of the 185th number, should be fixed. On them three black mica wheels should be fixed. They should be covered with chandrikaa toolikaa or white silk cotton. On that should be placed a vessel with acid of manjoosha or madder root, in which a heat-resisting crystal is immersed. In the front part the toothed mica wheels fitted with bhraamanee-danda keelakas should be fixed. And in order to revolve that keelaka 3 wheeled keelaka should be fixed. By its motion the umbrella will revolve disturbing the heat wave. Then the heat-absorbing mica wheels will absorb the heat, which, pas-sing down to the madder-root acid, will become cold and get extinguished. And the crew and passengers will be saved from its evil effects.

The Third Floor:- In erecting the 3rd floor of the vimana, the same procedure as was followed in erecting the second floor should be followed. Like the fixtures in the flooring of the 2nd aavarana and roofing of the 1st aavarana, fixtures should be put in connecting the roofing of the 2nd aavarana and the peetha of the 3rd aavarana. The peetha of the 3rd floor should be 5 feet less than the peetha of the 2nd floor, and be square or circular like it. The cabins, doors, walls, and furniture on the 3rd floor should be on the same lines as in the 2nd floor. In the north eastern part of the 3rd floor, a cabin should be prepared for housing the electric generator. It should be made out of somaanka loha. Somaanka loha is explained in “Lohatantra” as follows: Lead, panchaasya, and copper, 7 parts each, Chumbaka or loadstone 9 parts, nalikaa or Indian spikenard bark, sharaanika or rubus salt?, and borax, in equal parts, to be filled in sarpamukha crucible, and placed in naagakunda furnace, filled with coal, and heated to 353 degrees with shashamukha bellows. After melting the liquid should be filled in the mixer, and after churning be poured out to cool. The resulting metal will be a fine, light, electricity-impregnated somaanka loha. Out of that metal pattikas should be made with kuttinee yantra, or hammering yantra.

A cradle-like vessel, 3 feet wide and 8 feet high, should be made out of it, and be covered with a pattika with hinges. On the eastern and northern part of the cover two holes 1½ feet wide should be made. The cradle should be fixed in the electric cabin. Below the holes, two peethas should be fixed in the cradle. Two vessels 2 feet wide and 4 feet high should be prepared. Eight goblets 6 inches wide and 1 foot high should be made, and 4 each should be placed in the two vessels, in their four corners. In the middle of the 4 goblets, a big goblet should be placed so as to contact all the four. 2 vessels covered with patties having 5 holes should be placed inside the 2 holes in the cradle cover. Teethed churners 5 inches in size, 8 inches in height, like those of sugarcane machines, 8 in number, should be placed in the 8 goblets in the two vessels in the cradle. 2 churners, bigger than these should be placed in the two central goblets beneath the two holes. Fixtures should be fixed on the central churner so that by their turning all the other churners will turn.

The procedure for extracting electricity out of solar rays is as follows. 8 naalas or tubes should be prepared out of the 192nd kind of amshupa glass. The naalas should be fixed on the 4 corners of each vessel. Panchamukhi karnikaas should be placed on them, filled with rukmapunkhaa shana, and with electric crystals in them. Covering them with the amshupaa glass cover, 5 spires should be formed on it. The top of each spire should be like an open beak, and in it should be inserted sinjeeraka crystal and amshupaa crystal. On the central spire amshu-mitra mani should be fixed. Above the 4 crystals should be fixed 4 glass tubes made of kiranaakarshana glass, 6 inches wide and 3 feet high. On them should be carefully fixed 4 feet-wide-mouthed vessels, acid cleaned. They should be filled with Rudrajataa-vaala or aristolochia indica linn. Revolving ghutikas should be placed in their centre. The ghutikaas will attract the solar rays and send them through the tubes. The crystals in the spire beaks will suck them in.

Mathomathis - Vimanas
Mathomathis – Vimanas

So does the shinjeera crystal inside, as also the amshu-mitra crystal. The power will be absorbed by the glass-covering, and sent to the electric crystal. Then the karnikas inside will receive it and send down to the central tube with force. When the central churner revolves the other churners also revolve. The power will enter the acid, and the crystals in it will whirl with great speed, intensifying the power force to the extent of 1080 linkas. That force should be collected by the ganapa-yantra in front of the cradle, and stored in the central storage. The Ganapa-yantra is a machine shaped like Vighneshwara, 1 foot broad, and 3 feet high. From its head a tubular projection like elephant’s trunk, covered with glass and with wires inside should be fixed at the front of the cradle, and connected to the Ganapa image from the neck to the navel. Three-inch toothed wheels should be so fixed that a big wheel at the neck of the image, by force of the current coming through the trunk or proboscis will whirl, setting the other wheels in motion. A coil of wire should be placed in the centre. On it a sapta-shashthi shankha or conch called simhikaa should be placed, with covering made of kravyaada metal. 5 spoonfuls of jeevaavaka acid (ditamine?) should be filled in the conch, and 217 bhaamukha graamukha manis or beads should be placed inside. 5 umbrellas, 2 inches wide, should be made, and 5 sun crystals of the size of big liquorice, should be stuck on them. The umbrellas should be fixed on the conch, with amshupa glass covering. This should attract the force of the sun rays, and pass to the crystals on the umbrellas, making the crystals and the umbrellas whirl with fierce force of 1000 linkas, and the force passing to the acid in the conch and the crystal inside, will thence pass westwards, and could be transmitted through wires for any desired use. To measure its exact force a meter should be fixed in, along with thermometer and other needful equipments.


When the vimana has to move on the ground, the electric current is switched on the electric motor in the hub of each wheel, thus causing the rim to revolve and move the vimana. But when entering water the wheels are drawn in by the movements of toothed segment and the pinion, the latter being revolved by an electric motor attached to the shaft. The openings in the bottom of the vimana are closed by the sliding covers moved by the rack and pinion arrangement, the pinion being worked by an electric motor. The movements of the hinged joints of the folding links will raise or lower the second floor over the first floor.


Two jars are placed on the peetha or stand. Each jar contains five cups filled with acids. Each cup has a churning rod with gear-wheels connected together. The wheels are revolved by hand while starting, and by the generated electric power afterwards. A darpana or mirror and gharshana manis are fixed above the gear wheels. The darpana and the manis absorb the sun’s energy and transmit it to the acid cups. The acids, being churned, convert the absorbed energy into electric current, which will pass through the pancha-mukhee naala, or five-way-switch, to different points, and work the machines there.


The electric motor consists of a loop of fine wire coil, with a fine wire cage in the centre. The current from the generator is brought to the wire coil through a glass tube. Suitable wheels are attached to the wire cage to connect to the churning gears of the generator or the shaft of the pinion. The Simhika shankha on the top of the motor contains an acid and the bhaamukha-graahinee mani or crystal. Five rods with amshupaamitra manis are fitted to the top of the shankha, and toothed wheels are fitted to these rods to revolve together and rub against the inner surface of amshupaa mirror at the top. The solar power absorbed by the mirror is stored in the shankha, and given out by the bhaamukha graahinee mani to the various motors in the vimana.