Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained.
Puranas contain history of remote times. They are meant for common people and describe the times, troubles and triumphs of their heroes. A Purana usually gives prominence to a certain deity (Shiva, Vishnu, Krishna). Most use an abundance of religious and philosophical concepts in their narration from Bhakti to Sankya. According to Matsya Purana, they deal systematically with five subjects called Pancha Lakshana. They are –
- Sarga – The creation of the Universe
- Pratisarga – Secondary creations after dissolution
- Vamsa – Genealogy of Gods and sages
- Manvantara – Creation of the human race and the first human beings
- Vamsaanucharitam/Vansanucharitam – Dynastic histories.
A Purana, generally, gives importance to a particular deity and treats other deities to secondary roles. This is to increase the faith in their particular Ishta-Devata. The following section is based on Srimad Bhagavatam. At same time, it is not intended to give complete details of the entire Bhagavatam. The aim is to give a broad picture on the genealogy of prominent men and women of their times.
Beginning:- There was a great deluge. The entire Earth was submerged in water. Lord Narayana was absorbed in Yoga nidra after the Maha pralaya. He was reclining on the great serpent Adisesha. The entire Universe had been withdrawn into Him and lay dormant in Him. The three Gunas Sattva, Rajas and Tamas were in equilibrium. So it was a long time. Then TIME caused a disturbance in the three Gunas and the equilibrium was upset. Out of the navel of the Lord Narayana emerged a thin stalk. This grew into an immense lotus. Into that lotus entered the Lord in another form which was Brahma. Brahma found that he had four heads. He then looked around and saw large expanse of water and nothing else. It seemed to him that the waves around appeared to be telling him to perform Tapas/Meditation. He then did the Tapas/Meditation for hundred years (Do note: The 100 years what is been mentioned here is not the time of planet earth). All of a sudden, he saw the form of Lord Narayana in his mind. Brahma realized He was the Purusha. Lord Narayana told him “I have set you the task of creating the world and so the creation of the world began.
Out of the mind of Lord Brahma were born the four Rishis Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. Brahma asked them to take up the task of creation and multiply. However, the minds of the Rishis were made up of attaining salvation. They refused to undertake the task of creation. Brahma was angry with them but he controlled it. However, his anger took up a form and emerged out of his forehead. The child began to cry as soon as he was born. The child asked for a name and a place to stay. Brahma told the child “Do not cry. Since you cried the moment you are born, you will be called Rudra. The heart, the senses, life, the sky, air, fire, water, earth, the sun, the moon and tapas are the places assigned to you. You can go now and produce many in your image”.
Brahma then created ten sons out of his body. These were – Atri, Angirasa, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrigu, Daksha, Marichi, Vasishtha and Narada. Dharma and Adharma were also born out of Brahma. Out of his heart was born desire and out of his brows anger. His shadow took a form and this son was named Kardama. From his mind and body was created this entire world. The four Vedas were born out of his four faces. Brahma then divided his body into two; one was male and the other female. They were called Svayambhu Manu and Shatarupa. As soon as he was born Svayambhu Manu asked his father what he wanted him to do. Lord Brahma commanded that the work of creation should be continued. At that time the Earth was submerged in water and the Manu did not have a place to start. Brahma then sought the help of Lord Narayana who assumed the form of a boar in order to raise the Earth from below the water. He plunged into the ocean, located the earth, raised it on his tusks and began to climb. An Asura named Hiranyaksha tried to stop His progress, but he was killed. Svayambhu Manu and Shatarupa produced five children; three were daughters- Akuti, Prasuti and Devahuti. The sons were Priyavrata and Uttanapada. Akuti was married to a rishi by the name Ruchi, Devahuti to Kardama and Prasuti to Daksha. The children of these and their descendants have populated the world. Daksha had thirteen daughters. He gave them in marriage to Kashyapa, son of Marichi. Diti was one of them.
Diti’s sin:- One evening just after Kashyapa finished his evening worship, Diti came to him and wanted him to make love to her. Kashyapa refused pointing out that evenings are sacred for the worship of Mahadeva. However, Diti was determined to have her way. As a result of her sin, Diti gave birth to two sons and both of them were wicked. They were known by the names Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu. It was this Hiranyaksha who was killed by Lord Narayana in the form of Varahamoorthy. Hiranyakashipu also hated Lord Narayana intensely. However, his son Prahlada was a great devotee of the Lord. Hiranyakashipu persecuted everyone including the Devas. However, when he started punishing his son he crossed the limit. Lord Narayana killed him manifesting in the form of Narasimha. Devahuti served her husband Kardama with great devotion. They had nine daughters. Sage Kardama got married his daughters to following Rishis as follows:- Kala was given to Marichi; Anasuya to Atri; Shraddha to Angiras; Havirbhu to Pulastya; Gati to Pulaha; Kriya to Kratu; Khyati to Bhrigu; Arundhati to Vasishta and Shanti to Atharva.
Kapila Vasudeva:- Finally, Lord Narayana was born to Devahuti’s son. He was named Kapila. It was this Kapila who established the well known Sankhya Yoga. Kapila Vasudeva was born to reveal Brahma Vidya to human beings. Kapila teaches Atma Vidya to his mother to help her realize the Lord. After the birth of Kapila, Kardama retired to a forest and spent his days in Tapas. After teaching his mother Brahma Vidya, Kapila leaves home. Devahuti spent the rest of her life on the lines taught by her son and attained liberation. The spot where she attained Brahman became a holy spot. It is called Siddhapada. Even gods visit this place. Sage Kardama’s next daughter, Shraddha, was married to Sage Angiras. They had a son and he was Brihaspati. Havirbhu married Sage Pulastya and they had two sons; one was Sage Agastya and the other was Vishravas. The son of Vishravas was Kubera. Vishravas had another wife named Kaikasi. She was the mother of the famed Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana. Kratu’s wife Kriya was the mother of Rishis named by “Valakhilyas”. Kyati, wife of Bhrigu had two sons. One of them was the father of Mrikandu. The other son was Sage Shukracharya, the Acharya of Asuras.
Atri’s Tapas:- Daksha Prajapati married Prasuti, the second daughter of Manu. They had sixteen daughters. Thirteen of the daughters were married to Dharma. One daughter was given to Agni; one to the Pitris and one was given to Lord Mahadeva. Anasuya, daughter of Manu was married to Sage Atri. Sage Atri performed a great penance on the mountain of Ruksha. He wanted a son from the Lord of the Lords who will be like Him. Pleased with his Tapas all the three murthis- Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara appeared before him. Overwhelmed by the simultaneous presence of the tri-murthis Sage Atri worshipped them appropriately. In response to the query from the three murthis, the sage replied “I prayed for the best among you to grant me a son in His image. It is up to you to tell me who is the best from among you”. Brahma, Vishnu and Mahadeva were amused by his words. “We are all aspects of the Brahman. It is the same Brahman who creates, preserves and destroys. We wanted you to realize the truth and that is why all three of us have come. You will be father of three sons, each one an amsha of each of us. They will become very famous and bring you a great name”. The son born to Atri with the amsha of Brahma was the Moon; Datta was the son with the amsha of Vishnu and the son with the image of Mahadeva was Durvasa.
Arrogant King Daksha:- Daksha Prajapati’s daughter, Sati, married Lord Mahadeva. Daksha once performed a great Yagna by the name Brahma Satra. As the Yagna was about to commence, Daksha felt that Mahadeva insulted him. In an uncontrollable anger he abused and cursed the Lord. In an atmosphere charged with anger and emotion the followers of Daksha and Lord Mahadeva exchanged curses. As a follow-up on this Yagna, Daksha performed another where he pointedly did not invite Mahadeva. The Lord did not attend the Yagna but allowed His wife to attend, since she was very keen. However, on arrival at the yagnashala, she discovered that her father, Daksha, ignored her. Others at the scene did not dare to defy Daksha. Sati was furious at the insult targeted towards her husband. She spoke harshly to her father. Then by yogic power she burnt her body and was reduced to ashes.
On hearing about the tragedy at the yagnashala, Lord Mahadeva was not at all surprised but was very furious. He pulled a strand from his matted locks and threw it on the ground. Out of it was born Virabhadra glowing like fire. Mahadeva ordered that the proud Daksha along with the yagnashala to be destroyed. Virabhadra along with Pramathaganas rushed to the yagnashala. Within a short time the place was destroyed and Daksha was killed. All the Devatas accompanied with Lord Vishnu and Brahma went to Kailasa to meet Mahadeva and pacify Him. He forgave Daksha and who came back to life with the head of a goat. The Yagna was completed.
Dhruva’s Tapas:- Uttanapada, the son of Manu, had two wives; Suniti and Suruchi. Suniti’s son was Dhruva and Suruchi’s son was Uttama. Surichi was the favourite wife of Uttanapada. Under the influence of Suruchi the king treated Uttama with great affection and openly neglected Dhruva. The child ran to his mother and complained. Suniti advised the child to take refuge in Lord Narayana. He went away to a forest not knowing how to gain the grace of the Lord. Sage Narada decided to help the child. He initiated the Maha mantra “Aum Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya” and told him to repeat it with his mind firmly concentrated on the Lord. Dhruva performed intense Tapas repeating the mantra. Lord Narayana was very pleased with the young devotee. He blessed the child that his wish to become the favourite of his father will come true and his father will crown him as a King In addition the Lord told the boy that He is assigning a place for him which will be eternal. The Sun and Moon will revolve round it. At the end of his life Dhruva reached Lord Narayana.