Hindu Scriptures & Sanskrit Literature | Mathomathis would like to present an article on Root By Kadambi Srinivasan | Published by | Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams | Tirupati 2019. The following article will explain about the creation of the universe by adopting the concepts of vedas and upanishad. Do note that, every concepts including the so called “modern science” has its own way on intercepting the cosmic creations. Readers are expected to have an open thought before making any judgemental thoughts in the article explained.
King Prithu: One of the descendants of Dhruva was a tyrant named Vena. He would not listen to advice from his ministers and continued with his reign of terror. The Rishis then invoked the God of death and Vena died. After the death of Vena, the land had no king to rule. Eventually with the help of penance of the Rishis a boy and a girl was born. They named the boy as Prithu. The girl was named Archis. From the lakshanas, the Rishis knew that he was born from an amsha (part of) of Lord Narayana. Archis was Sri Maha Lakshmi. When he was old enough, the boy was crowned as king. After he was crowned as king, the Rishis called him Prithu, the great protector of the world. Prithu noticed that his subjects were thin and emaciated. He concluded that Earth was not yielding enough. So he confronted Mother Earth and decided to punish her. Mother earth got frightened and explained that as time passed sinful acts were being committed everywhere. In a fit of anger she decided that the people were not fit enough to enjoy the wealth provided to them. However, she promised that she will now agree to yield enough food for all people. Everyone then got what he wanted. King Prithu was very pleased with the earth and her bounty, that he made her his beloved daughter. Since then mother Earth came to called as Prithvi. He was the first king that ever won the hearts of the people. From his time kings have been called “Rajas”. “Ranj” means charm, “Ranjayati iti Raja”. Prithu was the first Raja – “Adiraja”. King Prithu performed one hundred Ashvamedhas.
King Prithu’s grandson was Havirdhana who married Havirdhani. They had six children and the eldest was Barhishat. He married Shatadruti, daughter of the lord of the seas. Ten sons were born to this couple and they were famed as Prachetas. King Barhishat believed in the performance of yagnays and he performed many. Sage Narada took interest in him and initiated the Brahma Vidya advising him that it was the way for salvation. King Barhishat followed his advice.
Prachetas, the ten sons of King Barhishat, were great devotees of Lord Narayana. Lord Mahadeva was pleased with them and decided to help them. He taught them Rudra Gita and asked them to repeat it with a steady mind in order to gain the favour of Lord Narayana. They did that. The Lord Narayana was pleased with their devotion and asked them to marry Marisha, daughter of an Apsara. He also told the brothers that she will bear them a son whose fame will spread all over the world. All ten of them married Marisha. A son was born to them and he was Daksha. It was the same Daksha Prajapati who insulted Lord Mahadeva. He was born as a human being for the sin he committed. Prachetas crowned Daksha as the king and left for the forest. However, he too left for the forest to perform Tapas.
In the previous article, it was mentioned that Svayambhu Manu had two sons – Priyavrata and Uttanapada. We learnt earlier that Uttanapada’s son was the famed Dhruva. Priyavrata was the eldest son of the Manu. However, he had no desire to rule the kingdom and left for the forest to perform Tapas. Uttanapada and later Dhruva ruled the land. However, when Daksha, their descendant, left for the forest, the land was without a ruler. Lord Brahma went to Priyavrata and persuaded him to take up the reins of ruling the kingdom. Priyavrata married Barhishmati, daughter of Vishvakarma. Ten sons and a daughter were born to them. Agnitra was the eldest son. Three of his brothers left to the forest to perform Tapas. Agnitra and his six other brothers ruled the seven islands. The daughter Ojasvati was married to Shukra and their daughter was Devayani. People were happy during his rule. Priyavrata was interested in tracing the path of the Sun. He equipped himself with a chariot fast enough to travel with the Sun. He travelled with the Sun around the Earth seven times. The moats formed by the quick progress of his chariot became the seven great seas. They were named:-
- Kshira and
The earth divided into seven islands. They were named:-
- Shaka and
King Bharata:- Agnitra’s son was Nabhi and he had no children. He performed a great sacrifice where he worshipped Lord Narayana. The Lord was pleased with Nabhi and promised that he will be born as a son to Nabhi. The child was named Rishabha. Rishabha was crowned as the king after Nabhi. Rishabha married Jayanti the daughter of Indra. They had hundred sons; the eldest of them was Bharata. Bharata was a great king and the land was called Bharatavarsha after him. After a long number of years, Bharata decided to retire to the forest. He distributed his kingdom among his sons he went away to the ashrama of sage Pulaha near Haridwar. He worshipped Lord Narayana with great devotion. His heart was filled with peace born out of renunciation and detachment. One day he rescued a new-born deer when her mother died. He brought up the deer with great care and was greatly attached to it. His meditation and prayers were all things of the past. And when he died Bharata’s mind was on the deer. Since his thoughts were on the deer, Bharata was born as a deer. However, he had the privilege of remembering his previous birth. As a deer he travelled to holy places and finally died. And that was not the end of it all. Bharata was born again as a son of a Brahmin in the Angirasa clan. He was disgusted and did not want any attachment with anyone. His thoughts were continuously on Lord Narayana and it did not bother him to do menial jobs. He was Jada Bharata. He wandered over earth till he obtained salvation.
Daksha’s descendants:- Daksha, son of Prachetasa brothers married Asikni and had sixty daughters. Of the ten were married to Dharma, seventeen to Kashyapa, twenty-seven to Chandra and Bhuta, Angiras and Krishashva married two each. Vishvadevas were sons of one of the daughters. Marutvati was the mother of Marutvan and Jayanta. Jayanta was also called Upendra. Sankalpa was one of the daughters. Her son was also named Sankalpa and he was the father of Kama. The daughter Vasu was the mother of the eight Vasus Sarupa, wife of Bhuta became the mother of thousands of Rudras, eleven of whom were famous: Raivata, Aja, Bhava, Bhima, Vama, Ugra, Vrishakapi, Ajaikapat, Ahirbudhnya, Bahurupa and Maha. Kashyapa wives were Aditi, Diti, Dhanu, Kashtha, Arishta, Surasa, Ila, Muni, Krodhavasha, Tamra, Surabhi, Saram, Timi, Vinata, Kadru, Patangi and Yamini. Aditi ‘s son was Vamana – one of the incarnations of Lord Narayana. Vamana was born in the month of Bhadrapada: Shukla Paksha: Dvadashi and Abhijit was the star under which the child was born. In later years this dvadashi will be known as Vijaya Dvadashi.
The sons of Aditi were Vivasvan, Aryama, Pusha, Twashta, Savita, Bhaga, Dhata, Vidhata, Varuna, Mitra, Sakra and Urukrama. Dhanu had sixty one children. One of them was Vrishaparva. His daughter Sharmishta marries King Yayati, son of King Nahusha. Surabhi produced cows and buffaloes. Tamra gave birth to hawks, falcons and eagles. Krodhavasha was the mother of serpents with fangs. Ila produced trees. Arishta was the mother of Gandharvas. Kashta produced animals without split hooves. Viprasiddhi, son of Dhanu married Simhika, daughter of Hiranyakashipu. They had hundred children which included Rahu and Ketu. Muni gave birth to Apsaras Patangi produced birds and Yamini gave birth to moths and similar short-lived insects Vinata was the mother of Aruna (charioteer of Sun) and Garuda who carried Lord Narayana Kadru was the mother serpents. Famous among the sons were – Sesha, Vasuki, Takshaka and Karkotaka, Daityas and Maruts Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu were the sons of Diti. She also gave birth to Maruts. Hiranyaksha was killed by Lord Narayana in the form of Varaha. Hiranyakashipu hated Lord Narayana for this. He persecuted all devotees of Narayana.
Hiranyakashipu’s son was Prahlada who turned out to be the greatest devotee of the Lord. When Hiranyakashipu started persecuting Prahlada, then the Lord killed him in the form of Narasimha. Prahlada’s son was Virochana. And his son was the great asura king Bali. He defeats God Indra and becomes the Lord of the world. It was to subdue King Bali that Lord Narayana was born as Vamana. Bali was involved in conducting a great Yaga. Vamana approaches Bali and asks for a boon. The boon the child was asking was for three paces of ground as measured by the child. Shukracharya, the preceptor of the King reveals to the King that the child is in fact Lord Narayana himself and the boon should be refused. However, the king was excited to be in a position to grant a boon to the Lord of lords. He gives it. Vamana measures the earth and heaven with two paces and asks Bali a place for the third pace. Bali offers his head. Lord Narayana was very pleased with Bali and blessed him.
Solar dynasty:- Aditi, wife of sage Kashyapa, gave birth to twelve Adityas. One of them was Vivasvan, the Sun god- Surya. Surya’s son was Vivasvatha Manu. Manu had many sons and one of them was Ikshvaku. He was the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty; sometimes referred to as Surya Vamsha. In the line of Ikshvaku was born Naabhaka. He became one of the greatest seers of his time. Naabhaka’s son was Ambarisha and he possessed immense wealth. Yet he was aware that all the things of this world like riches are transient. He lived in this world of men without any bondage. He was a great devotee of Lord Narayana. His encounter with the sage Durvasa while practicing Dvadashi Vrata is well known. King Puranjaya was one of the descendants of Ikshvaku. He was a great warrior and was called by another name Kakutstha. King Mandhatri was one of the descendants of this lineage and was regarded as a great monarch.
Trishanku:- Satyavrata was a later king in the Solar dynasty. His son was Trishanku. Trishanku wanted to reach heavens with a human body. He approached his Guru Vashishta and resented his strange wish and cursed him to become a Chandala. Vishvamitra, the generous hearted agreed to perform a Yagna to send him to heaven. And he did perform the Yagna and the king was raised to the heavens. The devatas led by their king Indra resented it and threw him down. Vishvamitra got furious with the devatas and stopped Trishanku in mid air. Further he went on create a new heaven solely for the purpose of Trishanku. As he was about to create a new Brahma, the devatas pacified him. Trishanku lived in the special heaven.
King Bhagiratha:- Trishanku’s son was Harischandra. Another great king born in the Solar dynasty was King Sagara. He had two wives; Sumati and Kesini. Sumati had sixty thousand sons and Kesini had one son named Asamanja. Asamanja son was Amshuman and he was greatly devoted to his grandfather. Emperor Sagara wanted to perform Ashvamedha Yaga. Lord Indra stole the horse and left it in a cave where Sage Kapila was in Samadhi. Sixty thousand sons of the emperor went in search of the horse. When they found the horse in front of the sage, they mistook him to be the thief. Hearing the noise the sage opened his eyes and the sixty thousand princes were reduced to a heap of ash. Amshuman went in search of the sixty thousand princes and the missing horse. He finally reached Maharshi Kapila and fell at his feet. The sage told him to take the horse back to the emperor Sagara. He also told Amshuman that if water from Ganga could be used to wash the ashes of the princes, then they could ascend to the Pritriloka. The only problem was Ganga at that time was in the heavens. How do you bring it to the earth? Both Amshuman and his son Dilipa performed Tapas.
Both of them died before achieving any success. Bhagiratha, son of Dilipa, was determined to bring Ganga to the Earth. He performed tapas for a long time and Goddess Ganga was pleasedwith him. However, she asked that when she comes down from the heaven to the earth what will be there to take up the force of her fall. Bhagiratha began to perform tapas once again to please Lord Mahadeva. At last he got the Lord to agree to receive Ganga on His matted locks. The rest is history. The sixty thousand valiant sons of Sagara reached the loka meant for the Pitris. Raghu was a king from the Solar lineage. His son was Aja. And Aja’s son was King Dasharatha. Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna were the four sons of King Dasharatha. The famous Purana Ramayana written by Sage Valmiki tells deeds performed by the four brothers.
Lunar Dynasty:- We have seen that Chandra (also called as Soma) was one of the sons of Sage Atri. Lord Brahma made him the lord of the Oshadhis (medicinal herbs) and of stars. Soma conquered the three worlds and performed the Rajasuya. He was very handsome. In course of time he became proud and arrogant. Soma stole Tara, the wife of Brihaspati and refused to give her back. In the end Lord Brahma intervened and restored Tara back to Brihaspati. Tara had a son through Chandra. He was named as Budha. Budha married Ila and they had a son named Pururavas and he becomes the first king in the Lunar dynasty – Chandravamsha.
In the line of Pururavas was born a king named Gadhi. His daughter named Satyavati married Ruchika, a Brahmin. Gadhi had a son by the name of Kaushika. In later years Kaushika, after performing great tapas, came to be known as Vishvamitra. In course of time Satyavati had a son and he was named Jamadagni. He married Renuka and five sons were born to them: Vasuman, Vasu, Vasushena, Rumanvan and Rama. Rama was Kshatriya by nature. He came to be known as Parashurama. It was he who nearly exterminated the entire Kshatriya clan.
Nahusha and his personal heaven:- Pururavas had six sons, the eldest of whom was Ayu. His descendants were Nahusha, Yayati and Puru. Nahusha was a very good king, performed many yajnas and was fit enough to be Indra. As it happened, the Devatas came to Nahusha with a request to officiate as Indra during a period when Indra was in hiding. Nahusha did that for a while and started becoming arrogant with the power and wealth at his disposal. He misbehaved with the Rishis and was cursed to spend his time as a python. He begs forgiveness and was told that he will be released from the curse by the Pandavas in Dvapara Yuga. Nahusha’s son was Yayati. Yayati had two wives: Devayani, daughter of Shukracharya and Sharmishta. King Yayati had five sons – two from Devayani and three from Sharmishta. The sons of Devayani were Yadu and Turvasu. Sons of Sharmishata were Druhyu, Anu and Puru.
Kuru Vamsha and Kurukshetra:- Puru was considered as one of the foremost kings of the Lunar dynasty. Kuru was another. So the vamsha(lineage) was called Purana vamsha or Kuru vamsha. In this vamsha was born King Dushyanta. Dushyanta married Shakuntala. Shakunta was born to the apsara Menaka when she lived with Sage Vishvamitra. The son of Shakuntala was Bharata. One of the descendants of Bharata was Kuru. Kuru performed tapas in a spot named Kurujangala. This spot came to be named as Kurukshetra. The descendant in this line was king Shantanu who was the grandfather of kauravas and Pandavas. Yayati’s son Yadu was not interested in ruling a kingdom and he was made to rule one of the smaller kingdoms. He had three other sons- Kroshtu, Nala and Ripu.
Sri Krishna and Balarama:- In the line of Kroshtu was born Andhaka and Vrishni. A descendant of Andhaka was Aahuka whose sons were Devaka and Ugrasena. Devaka had a daughter by the name of Devaki. She was given in marriage to Vasudeva, son of Shura. The son of Devaki and Vasudeva was Lord Krishna. Vasudeva had seven wives – Pauravi, Rohini, Bhadra, Madira, Rochana, Ila and Devaki. Through Rohini, Vasudeva had Balarama as his son. Vasudeva had five sisters – Pritha, Shrutadevi, Shrutakirti, Shrutashravas and Rajadhidevi. Kunti Bhoja was a friend of Shura and did not have any children. King Shura gave his daughter Pritha to his friend. Pritha, from then on, was better known as Kunti. She was the mother of three of the Pandavas- Dharmaraja, Bhima and Arjuna.